Exam 2- Lecture 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2- Lecture 5 Deck (16):
1

Emotions

Are brief (only seconds or minutes)
-> moods last hours, even days

Are specific
-> responses to specific events or experiences

Are functional (motivate behavior)
- fear -> escape
- guilt -> make amends
- anger -> retribution
- physiological component makes action possible

Top five- love, anger, hate, depression, fear

2

Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory

Positive emotions set you up to thrive
-open you up to opportunities (build resources, etc.)
-broaden thinking (creative)

3

William James
Theory of where emotions come from

Specific physiological reaction -> specific emotion

Problem: not true, many look similar

4

Schachter & Singer
Two-factor theory

Unexplained physiological arousal -> cognitive explanation

Suspension bridge study
- higher bridge, more likely to call
-> mistaken for love/attraction

5

Lazarus- Appraisal processes

We evaluate events and objects based on their goal relevance

Primary appraisal:
-quick and unconscious
-relevant?
-pleasant or unpleasant?

Second appraisal:
-specific and deliberate
-evaluate the situation
-determine a specific emotional response

6

Are emotions universal?

Darwin- YES
- similarity to emotional expressions in other animals

More recent findings:
Ekman
- 80-90% agreement on facial expressions, even in a remote tribal group

Tracy's pride studies
- posture of pride recognized across cultures, expressed by the blind, similar to animals

BUT
some cultural variation in expression

7

How emotions affect social relationships

Empathetic emotions
Emotional mimicry increases closeness and liking
Emotions can signal power of lack of it in a group
Self-presentational emotions (embarrassment, shame)

higher- anger
lower- embarrassment (serve as a cue to others), shame (similar)

8

Empathetic emotions

by watching someone else experience X, helpful for emotional relationships
Disappointment, embarrassment, etc.

9

How emotions affect social cognition

Influence how we process info and make judgements
Feelings-as-information (Schwartz & Clore)
-> determine what is going on by looking at own feelings
Positive emotions -> "top (overall/general) down"
Negative emotions -> "bottom (details) up"

10

Feelings-as-information (Schwartz & Clore)

Determine what is going on by looking to own feelings
- use feelings as info to the state of things

11

Moral judgement

Haidt "gut feelings" as guide for moral judgements
Sibling scenario
-> disgust, know it is wrong, but cannot justify

Moral judgement and political views
disgust sensitivity- people who are more easily disgusted tend to be more politically conservative

12

Affective forecasting

We overestimate how positive and negative we will feel (amount and duration) in response to good and bad events

Tenure study, break up study

Because of:
Focalism
Immune neglect (forget we have it)

13

Tenure study, break up study

Affective forecasting

Tenure- not given; bounce back within few months to year

Break up
-single; feel like it would be amazing-> not really
-relationship; feel would be devastated-> not really

14

Focalism

Focus on the specific event, not about all the other factors that will actually come into play during the event

15

Immune neglect

Psychological immune system

Ex. Not take blame for bad events, reconstruct events to help feel good about self, coping resources

We often forget that we have it/ that it is there

16

What does make us happy?

Money ($75,000 a year to be exact)
Relationships
Freedom (societal level)
Emotional expression (especially writing, but only for negative experiences)
Practice (at being positive)
-> Lyubomirsky, 2006 (count your blessings, literally)