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Flashcards in Exam 2- Studies Deck (29):

Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory

Positive emotions set you up to thrive
-open you up to opportunities (build resources, etc.)
-broaden thinking (creative)


Suspension bridge study (Dutton & Aron)

Schachter & Singer
Two-factor theory

Higher bridge, more likely to call
-> mistaken for love/attraction


Universality of emotions- Ekman

80-90% agreement on facial expressions, even in a remote tribal group


Universality of emotions- Tracy's pride studies

posture of pride recognized across cultures, expressed by the blind, similar to animals


How satisfied are you with your life?

-sunny days; more
-gloomy days; less

-> when asked about weather, no correlation


Haidt- Sibling scenario

Moral judgement
"gut feelings" as guide for moral judgements
Sibling scenario
-> disgust, know it is wrong, but cannot justify


Tenure study, break up study

Affective forecasting

Tenure- not given; bounce back within few months to year

Break up
-single; feel like it would be amazing-> not really
-relationship; feel would be devastated-> not really


Lyubomirsky, 2006

Count your blessings, literally


Quote source study

Speaker effects: credibility

To what extent do you agree (told quote either by Thomas Jefferson or Lennon) agreed/ disagreed based upon speaker


Speaking speed

Speaker effects: credibility

Faster, more expert and smart as long as can still understand


Prison study

Message effects: message quality

Essays for more lenient or harsher sentences, told written either by convicted felon to prosecuting attorney- stronger by convicted was more persuasive/convincing (and opposite was true)


Janis et al. (1965)- Pepsi and peanuts study

Audience effects: mood

-> reviewed essays and their attitudes
-> those who had snacks rater better


Sherif (1936) auto kinetic effect

Conformity: informational influence

-> unmoving dot of light in dark space appears to have motion
-> in a group, participant's estimates have converged


Asche (1955) line judging studies

Conformity: normative influence

-> conform to confederates and give the wrong answer!
-> 37% on average gave the wrong and conforming answer

Conformity: unanimity

-> If even one person dissented, conformity dropped to 5%


Milgram's "looking up at nothing" study

Conformity: group size

1 person; 40% looked up/conformed
2 people; 60%
3 people; 65%
4 people 80%


Jaywalking study

Conformity: group member status

Decreased from 25% to 17% when well-dressed non jaywalker was present


Drive safely sticker -> sign

Compliance: foot-in-the-door
-more than twice as likely big sign when did small before


Blood donor study

Compliance: door-in-the-face
--"long term? tomorrow?" 50% agree
-"tomorrow?" 32% agree


Charitable donation

Compliance: reciprocity
-request with gift 35% donate
-without gift 18% donate


Milgram (1974)

Participants: 40 men as "teachers"
Cover story: effects of punishment on learning
Machine: 15 to 450 volts
Psychiatrists guessed: 1 in 1000 would go to 450 volts
Finding: 63% went to 450 volts


Milgram (1974)
What characteristics of the requester led to obedience?

-status or prestige of the person giving commands
-> experimenter replaced by clerk, 20 % obey

-more influential when close
->experimenter called by phone, only 21% obey

-more influential when more people giving commands


Milgram (1974)
What characteristics of the situation led to obedience?

Emotional distance of the victim
-shock by remote and can't hear the learner, 100% obey
--> learned hold hand to shock plate, only 30% obey

Institutional authority
-office in Bridgeport, CT instead of Yale, only 48% obey

Presence of resisters
-two defiant teachers added, 90% of participants left


Triplett (1898)- String in fishing reel study

Concluded: mere presence of others can ENHANCE performance
-also occurred when others NOT COMPETING
-universal (animals)

Social facilitation
-enhanced performance in the presence of others


Dashiell (1930)

Mere presence of others DISRUPTS or HINDERS performance (completing maze, complex math, etc.)

Social inhibition
-hindered performance in presence of others


Zajonc (1965)

Presence of others -> arousal (physiological state)

Arousal -> increase likelihood of dominant response (easy or well-learned task)

Social facilitation
-effect, POSITIVE or NEGATIVE, of presence of others on performance


Jogger and woman on grass study

Facing path- joggers ran faster
Away- no effect


Ringelmann- Tug of war study

Group performance: Social loafing

-asses amount of pull
-1:1 exert more individual force then when in group


Latane et al. (1979)- Shouting and clapping study

Group performance: Social loafing

-when believed group- less load than believed alone


Janis (1971, 1982)- Case studies

Group think

Historical event in which groups made poor decisions