Exam 3- Lecture 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3- Lecture 11 Deck (18):
1

Prosocial behavior

Any act designed to help others

2

Altruism

Unselfish behavior that benefits others WITHOUT REGARD to consequences for oneself

Ongoing debate about the existence of "true altruism"
-helps society run smoothly, seems unrealistic

3

What motivates prosocial behavior?

Social rewards
-esteem and respect, status, praise

Personal distress
-watching someone suffer causes distress (empathy)

Empathic concern
-identifying with someone in need

4

Social rewards

Motivates prosocial behavior
Esteem and respect, status, praise

5

Personal distress

Motivates prosocial behavior
Watching someone suffer causes distress (empathy)

6

Negative state relief hypothesis

Personal distress
Give help in order to get out of bad mood

-if give ppl another way to feel better, not as likely to help
-if believe helping WON'T make them feel better, NOT as likely to help

Kids DON'T know this yet
-learn around 7 or 8

7

Empathic concern

Motivates prosocial behavior
Identifying with someone in need

8

Happiness motive for helping

It feels good

Dunn's research on selfish vs. prosocial spending
-feel better when spend on other than spend on self

We help more when we're in a GOOD mood, in part to maintain it
-Quarters in pay phones study
->found money or not, those who found were more likely to help when someone dropped papers

9

Natural selection motive for helping

Evolution makes us do it

Kin-selection
-more likely to help people who share our genes

10

Reciprocity motive for helping

We might get something in return

Might explain what we help non-kin

11

Decision-making model for helping behavior (Darley & Latane)
5 steps for helping

1. Notice the event (that someone is in need)
-"Smoke in the test room" study (Latane & Darley, 1968)

2. Interpret event as emergency (ambiguity diminishes helping behavior -- pluralistic ignorance)
-Married vs. stranger study

3. Take responsibility for helping (Bystander effect)
-Seizure study (Darley & Latane)

4. Must know how to give help

5. Must decide to help (rewards vs. costs- Social exchange theory)

12

Decision-making model for helping behavior
1. Notice the event

We will not help unless we first notice that someone is in need

"Smoke in the test room" study (Latane & Darley, 1968)
-participants fill out fake questionnaire
-emergency staged (smoke)
Results:
-participant alone: notice under 5s
-with others: notice in 20s (really focus on questionnaire)

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Decision-making model for helping behavior
2. Interpret event as emergency

Ambiguity diminishes helping behavior

Pluralistic ignorance
-we assume that when other ppl appear unconcerned in an ambiguous situation the situation is not an emergency

Married vs. stranger study
-staged physical fight (pushing/shoving)
-"I don't know you" (65% of time, stranger helped) or "don't know why married you" (19% of time, stranger intervened)

14

Decision-making model for helping behavior
3. Take responsibility for helping

Even if it is clear that an event is an emergency, ppl may not help if others are around

Bystander effect
Greater the # of bystanders who witness an emergency, the LESS LIKELY anyone of them is to help
-because diffusion of responsibility (bystander and social loafing)
--> Seizure study (Darley & Latane)
-participant on phone with another
Conditions
-just one other (85%; 52s to alert)
-two other ppl (62%; 93s)
-six total (31%: 166s)

15

Decision-making model for helping behavior
4. Must know how to give help

People cannot help if they don't know how
(e.g., knowing CPR)

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Decision-making model for helping behavior
5. Must decide to help

Weight REWARDS and COSTS

Social exchange theory
-ppl take rewards and costs into account when deciding whether to help

We are more likely to help with rewards OUTWEIGH costs

Rewards include benefits to other person

17

Good Samaritan Study (Darley & Batson, 1973)

Seminary students asked to give a lecture on Good Samaritan OR on some other topic

Half told late and to hurry

Who helped?
-if early, 65% helped
-if on time, 40% helped
-if late, only 10% helped

Topic of lecture made NO difference

Cost-benefit

18

Just learning about steps toward helping

increases ppl's tendency to help and decreases pluralistic ignorance and bystander effect!