Exam 3- Lecture 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3- Lecture 9 Deck (20):
1

Stereotypes

Beliefs about the attributes of a group of people

-positive, negative, or neutral
-over generalization (always exceptions)
-resistant to change (confirmation bias)
-used to justify unfair/unethical practices

The COGNITIVE component

If we meet non-steoerotypical group members
Subtyping- create a category for exceptions

2

Prejudice

An unjust negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group

-negative

The AFFECTIVE component
Not always explicitly negative (benevolent sexism)
-positive view, that could still be demeaning
-can be about power (keep below power they should have)

3

Discrimination

Unjustified negative behavior toward a group or it's members

The BEHAVIORAL component

4

Racism

An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race
-also institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race
-similar definitions for sexism

5

Modern racism

A more subtle form of racism; more socially acceptable

-believe it is wrong to be prejudice
-believe racism no longer exists
-believe that certain groups have been pushing too hard for equal rights
-believe that the government has give certain groups too much preferential treatment

6

Causes of prejudice

Realistic group conflict
-Prejudice and discrimination are likely to arise when groups compete for limited resources

Socialization
-direct observation of others

In-group Bias
-tendency to favor one's own group

Minimal Group Paradigm
-create groups that have no social reality (randomly place people in groups)

Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
-perception of out-group members as being more similar to one another than in-group members

Just-World Beliefs
-belief that the world is just and that people get what they deserve

7

Realistic group conflict

Cause of prejudice
Prejudice and discrimination are likely to arise when groups compete for limited resources

-an economic explanation for prejudice and discrimination
-example: working class Americans showed most anti-black prejudice following the civil rights movement (competition for jobs)
-example: Israelis and Palestinians (competition for land)

8

Socialization

Cause of prejudice
Direct observation of others

Media
-place people in stereotypical roles
-certain groups are under-represented
-"faceism" in print media, 2/3 of the avg male photo was devoted to face; less than 1/2 of female photo ads devoted to face
-> face focus- more intelligent, more ambitious

Study: 1989
42 yrs cartoons, only ONE with black in it when topic not race

Institutions
Crayons- flesh colored (pinkish white); Indian red

9

In-group Bias

Cause of prejudice
Tendency to favor one's own group

In-goup
-"us" - a group who shares a sense of belonging and a feeling of common identity
-example: UCR students, Californians

Out-group
-"them" - a group perceived as distinctly different are apart from the in-group
-example: USC students, Southerners

10

Minimal Group Paradigm

Cause of prejudice
Create groups that have no social reality (randomly place people in groups)

Klee & Kandinsky study
-students asked which abstract painting they preferred
-asled to allocate money to other participants (only info given was painting preference)
-showed in-group boas and gave more money to those who liked the same painting they did

Classic examples of minimal group paradigm
Stanford prison study
-randomly assigned participants to be either prisoners or guards
-intended to run row 2 weeks, reality 6 days
-"guards" -> sadistic
-"prisoners" -> depressed, extreme stress
-implications:
->everyone chosen randomly
->split into groups
->given labels (cause by situation)

11

Outgroup Homogeneity Effect

Cause of prejudice
Perception of out-group members as being more similar to one another than in-group members

Own-race Bias
-better at identifying own race (false positives for out group)

Line-up studies
-own race bias
-identify their race first when out-group
-focus more on features when in-group

12

Just-World Beliefs

Cause of prejudice
Belief that the world is just and that people get what they deserve

Carli and colleagues (1989, 1999)
Date scenario study
-description changes of date after wine (happy ending- proposal; bad ending)
-say both are predictable and believable (blamed woman for her behavior in bad ending)
[Derogating the victim]

13

Effects of Prejudice

Sociofunctional Approach to prejudice
-the consequences of prejudice vary depending on reactions to the group

Self-fulfilling Prophecies
-because of what we expect, act a certain way that creates the expected result out of the other

Stereotype Threat
-a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will verify the negative stereotype

14

Sociofunctional Approach to prejudice

Effects of Prejudice
The consequences of prejudice vary depending on reactions to the group

Emotional reactions to certain groups predict specific prejudice and discrimination behaviors
anger -> aggression
disgust -> avoidance/resistance
fear -> escape
pity -> prosocial behavior
envy -> theft
guilt -> reconciliation

15

Self-fulfilling Prophecies

Effects of Prejudice

Word, Zanna, & Cooper (1974) Interview study
Part 1
-white Ps interviewed RAs posing as White and Black job applicants
->black applicant: sat further away, ended interview sooner, more speech errors by interviewer

Part 2
-trained RAs conducted interview in "White style" (good interviewer) or "Black style" (bad interviewer)
->all White applicants; other people rated performance on video
->"Black" interview style = applicants performed objectively worse

16

Stereotype Threat

Effects of Prejudice

A disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will verify the negative stereotype
(Distracted because worried about fulfilling)

Spencer & Steele (1995)- Women and math tests
When in room with men, performed worse when labeled as "math test" (reminded of stereotype)
(objectively equally good)

Study with Asian women (positive stereotype)
-working self-concept: reminded by questions (either ethnicity or gender)
-did worse when reminded women as opposed to control
-when reminded Asian, did better than control

17

Reduce Prejudice

Contact Hypothesis
-contact between members of different groups leads to more positive intergroup attitudes

Equal Status
-contact must be with people of EQUAL STATUS; best if FRIENDSHIPS form

Cooperation
-sometimes more than contact is required
->Superordinate goals- shared goals that require cooperative effort
->Shared threats

18

Contact Hypothesis

Reducing prejudice
Contact between members of different groups leads to more positive intergroup attitudes

19

Equal Status

Reducing prejudice
Contact must be with people of EQUAL STATUS; best if FRIENDSHIPS form

20

Cooperation

Reducing prejudice
Sometimes more than contact is required

Superordinate goals
-shared goals that require cooperative effort

Shared threats

Sherif's Robbers Cave Study (1961)
-summer camp; create then resolve conflicts
-create separate teams (conflict) brought together for non competitive things, then shared goals, by end all friends