Exam 2- Lecture 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2- Lecture 7 Deck (19):
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Social influence

Leads to a change in behavior

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Three types of social influence

1. Conformity
- a change in behavior in response to real or imagined PRESSURE from others (normative behavior)
- most indirect

2. Compliance
- responding favorably to a DIRECT REQUEST made by another person
- ex. donate to charity, give blood, etc.

3. Obedience
- a change in behavior in response to a COMMAND from someone in a position of authority

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Conformity

Type of social influence

A change in behavior in response to real or imagined PRESSURE from others (normative behavior)
Most indirect

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Compliance

Type of social influence

Responding favorably to a DIRECT REQUEST made by another person
ex. donate to charity, give blood, etc.

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Obedience

Type of social influence

A change in behavior in response to a COMMAND from someone in a position of authority

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Why do people conform?

1. Informational influence
Accepting evidence provided by other people about the best was to behave
- motivated by desire to be correct
- leads to internalization
- study: Sherif (1936) auto kinetic effect
-> unmoving dot of light in dark space appears to have motion
-> in a group, participant's estimates have converged

2. Normative influence
Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance
- motivated by wanting acceptance, avoiding disapproval or harsh judgement, etc.
- no internalization necessary
- study: Asche (1955) line judging studies
-> conform to confederates and give the wrong answer!
-> 37% on average gave the wrong and conforming answer

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When are people most likely to conform?

1. Group size- usually need 3-4 people for conformity

Milgram's "looking up at nothing" study
- 1 person; 40% looked up/conformed
- 2 people; 60%
- 3 people; 65%
- 4 people 80%

Affects INFORMATIONAL and NORMATIVE influence

2. Unanimity- with even one dissenter, conformity decreases

Asch- If even one person dissented, conformity dropped to 5%

Affects both INFORMATIONAL and NORMATIVE influence

3. Anonymity- responding in front of group members makes conformity more likely

Primary affects NORMATIVE influence

4. Group member status- if group members are HIGH STATUS, more conformity

Jaywalking study- decreased from 25% to 17% when well-dressed non jaywalker was present

Primary affects NORMATIVE influence

5. Group member expertise- people are more likely to conform when group members are experts

Primary affects INFORMATIONAL influence

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Compliance

Foot-in-the-door technique
-agree to small -> agree to large

Door-in-the-face technique
-turn down large -> comply more reasonable

Low-ball technique
-agree initial request -> maintain agreement to increase to initial request

Reciprocation (norm of reciprocity)
-reciprocate help

Scarcity
-"limited edition"

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Foot-in-the-door technique

People who have agreed to a SMALL request are more likely to comply later with a LARGER request

Study: Drive safely sticker -> sign
-more than twice as likely big sign when did small before

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Door-in-the-face technique

After a person turns down a large request, people are more likely to comply when the requester offers a more reasonable request

Study: Blood donor study
-"long term? tomorrow?" 50% agree
-"tomorrow?" 32% agree

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Low-ball technique

People who agree to initial request often maintain commitment when request increases

Car salesman
Same car purchase, increase in actual price from ticket

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Reciprocation (norm of reciprocity)

Expectation that people will help lose who have helped them

Study: charitable donation
-request with gift 35% donate
-without gift 18% donate

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Scarcity

Things you do not, or cannot have, become more valuable

"limited edition"

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Milgram (1974)

Participants: 40 men as "teachers"
Cover story: effects of punishment on learning
Machine: 15 to 450 volts
Psychiatrists guessed: 1 in 1000 would go to 450 volts
Finding: 63% went to 450 volts

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Milgram (1974)
What characteristics of the requester led to obedience?

Strength
-status or prestige of the person giving commands
-> experimenter replaced by clerk, 20 % obey

Immediacy
-more influential when close
->experimenter called by phone, only 21% obey

Number
-more influential when more people giving commands

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Milgram (1974)
What characteristics of the situation led to obedience?

Emotional distance of the victim
-shock by remote and can't hear the learner, 100% obey
--> learned hold hand to shock plate, only 30% obey

Institutional authority
-office in Bridgeport, CT instead of Yale, only 48% obey

Presence of resisters
-two defiant teachers added, 90% of participants left

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Resisting social pressure

Reactance
-motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom

Minority influence
-occurs through: info influence (path to conformity)
-causes majority to think more deeply about their position
-can lead to internalization (true acceptance)

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Reactance

Motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom

Arrises when someone threatens our freedom

Binge drinking teens in US

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Minority influence

Occurs through: info influence (path to conformity)
Causes majority to think more deeply about their position
Can lead to internalization (true acceptance)

What makes a minority persuasive?
-consistency
-self-confidence
-defections from the majority