Exam 2- Lecture 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2- Lecture 6 Deck (18):
1

Persuasion

The process of changing someone's attitude toward something

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Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

Two possible routes to persuasion
1. Central route processing
- thinking systematically and evaluating the arguments
- effortful processing
MUST HAVE:
-motivation to pay attention
-ability to think about argument

2. Peripheral route processing
- influenced by incidental or irrelevant characteristics
- ex. because attractive person gives message, because X made them happy
NOT:
-motivated
-able (e.g., distracted, don't have time to think about argument)

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Use central messages for

Long-lasting attitude change

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Use peripheral messages if

Your argument is weak

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Use central messages when audience

Is highly uninvolved, motivated, and/or analytical

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Use peripheral messages when you audience

Is uninvolved, unmotivated, or not analytical

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Yale approach to attitude change

"Who says What to Whom?"

Who: speaker effects
What: message effects
Whom: audience effects

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What makes a speaker more persuasive?
Speaker effects (Who)

1. Credibility
- a combination of expertise (know what they are talking about) and trustworthiness
-> quote source study: to what extent do you agree (told quote either by Thomas Jefferson or Lennon) agreed/ disagreed based upon speaker
-> speaking speed: faster, more expert and smart as long as can still understand

2. Attractiveness

Exception:
Sleeper effect: delayed impact of a message that occurs when we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it (the source)
-> b/c reason for discounting is now gone, it is persuasive

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Sleeper effect

Exception to the speaker effect

Delayed impact of a message that occurs when we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it (the source)
-> b/c reason for discounting is now gone, it is persuasive

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Message effects (What)

1. Message quality
- straightforward, clear, and logical
- explicitly refute the other side
- speak against your own self interest (must be saying because profoundly true)
--> Prison study: essays for more lenient or harsher sentences, told written either by convicted felon to prosecuting attorney- stronger by convicted was more persuasive/convincing (and opposite was true)

2. Vividness
- statistics/facts vs. compelling story (more persuasive)

3. Fear
- could increase motivation OR shut down processing
--> McGuire's reception-yeilding model
-> right amount of fear- get attention, process message deeper (central route), more persuasive
-> too scary, too intense- shut it out
- best way to use fear appeals:
-> aim for a moderate amount of fear
-> include a solution

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McGuire's reception-yeilding model

-> right amount of fear- get attention, process message deeper (central route), more persuasive
-> too scary, too intense- shut it out

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Audience effects (Whom)

1. Mood
- a positive mood may lead to greater persuasion
-> top-down and bottom-up processing
- Janis et al. (1965)- Pepsi and peanuts study
-> reviewed essays and their attitudes
-> those who had snacks rater better

2. Distraction
- distraction during message presentation may enhance persuasion
-> BUT only if people actually receive the message

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Resisting persuasion

Be forewarned
Be an expert
Make a public commitment to your position
Have an ally on your position
Attitude inoculation
-> exposing people to weak attacks to their attitudes helps them develop counterarguments (resist big attack better)

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Attitude inoculation

-> exposing people to weak attacks to their attitudes helps them develop counterarguments (resist big attack better)

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Subliminal

Below the level of conscious awareness

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Back-masking

Hidden messages in essays or songs that con only be heard when played backwards

Popular idea, but very little convincing evidence

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Priming

Activating a concept in someone's mind, often below the level of consciousness

No existing attitude, or minor behavior change
Short duration of effect
Easily interfered with

Study: exposed to words related to the elderly -> walked slower when leaving the lab

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Cults

Communicator (who)
- charismatic, appears expert and trustworthy

Message (what)
- induces positive mood
- no counterarguments (cut off from outsiders)
- prevents central processing (sleep deprivation)
- induces fear

Audience (whom)
- often under 25 (before attitudes have stabilized)
- educated
- middle-class
- usually at a turning point (college, personal crisis)

Remember: our attitudes often follow our behavior