Surgical Techniques - Positioning and Prepping 3-B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Surgical Techniques - Positioning and Prepping 3-B Deck (106)
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1

an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intestitial space of the tissues

edema

2

to turn the palm of the hand downward

pronate

3

internal organs enclosed within a body cavity, including the abdominal, thoracic, and pelvic organs

viscera

4

the posterior portion of the body between the ribs and the ileum

flank

5

a potentially dangerous abnormally low body temperature

hypothermia

6

force or pressure exerted against the surface and layers of the skin as tissues slide in opposite but parallel planes

shearing

7

pertaining to the sole of the foot

plantar

8

abnormally low blood volume causing a state of physical collapse and prostation caued by excessive blood loss

hypovolemic shock

9

an abnormal condition in which a blood clot develops with a blood vessel

thrombosis

10

network of nerves in the neck that pass under the clavicle and into the axilla

brachial plexus

11

to turn the palm of the hand upward

supinate

12

an abnormal presence of air in the cardiovascular system, resulting in obstruction of blood flow

air embollism

13

a nerve that is located on the outer part of the lower leg over the fibula

peroneal

14

a substance that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth

antimicrobial

15

the layer of skin just below the epidermis, containing the blood vessels and nerves, glands, and hair follicles

dermis

16

an alteration of the basic nature or structure of a substance

denature

17

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Control _____ after surgical procedures, such as TURP or TURB.

bleeding

18

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Decompress or empty the _____ before a surgical procedure to prevent injury to the organ.

bladder

19

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Control _____.

incontinence

20

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Keep _____ from contact with the surgical wound which could result in a postoperative wound infection.

urine

21

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Monitor ____ on patients who are having a major surgical procedure.

output

22

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Promote _____ of surgical incision.

healing

23

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Provide better visualization of the operative site to prevent injury to the _____ structures.

genitourinary

24

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Collect _____ for laboratory analysis.

specimen

25

Characteristics of urinary catheterization:

Prevent or relieve _____ retention

urine

26

Considerations of urinary catheterization:

Consider the duration or length of time that the _____ is needed.

catheter

27

Considerations of urinary catheterization:

Provide _____ to protect the patient's modesty when inserting the catheter.

privacy

28

Considerations of urinary catheterization:

Check physician's _____ or preference card before catheterization.

order

29

Considerations of urinary catheterization:

Position patient and adjust _____ before beginning procedure.

lighting

30

Considerations of urinary catheterization:

Select the appropriate catheter for the ____ of the patient.

size

31

Considerations of urinary catheterization:

_____ technique must be maintained during catheterization process to prevent microorganisms from entering the urinary tract.

Sterile

32

Supplies for urinary catheterization:

The catheter insertion tray/kit includes sterile gloves, sterile drapes, cleansing agent, cotton swabs, disposable forceps, 10 cc yringe with sterile water to inflate the balloonm lubricant, and a _____ catheter.

Foley

33

Procedure for urinary catheterization:

For female catheterizationm adequate exposure of the _____ is obtained by elevating and supporting the legs by stirrups or placing them in a frog-legged position.

urethra

34

Procedure for urinary catheterization:

For male catheterization, if there is a _____, it is retracted to its maximal limit.

foreskin

35

Monitoring urine output:

Measuring the urinary output is important to ensure the _____ are functioning normally.

kidneys

36

Monitoring urine output:

Fluid balance is the balance of the input and output of fluids in the body to allow ______ processes to function.

metabolic

37

Monitoring urine output:

Assessment of fluid balance involves three elements:  clinical assessment, body _____, and urine output.

weight

38

Safety and patient risks:

Care must be taken when positioning the female patient to prevent injury to _____ and the hip joint when placing the patient in the frog-legged position.

nerves

39

Safety and patient risks:

Injury to the bladder or urethra can occur from rough or incorrect insertion of the catheter or from narrowing the urethra caused by scar tissue or in a male patient from enlargement of the _____ gland.

prostate

40

Safety and patient risks:

Urinary tract infections can occur when ____ enter into the urinary tract when the catheter is being placed or while the catheter remains in the bladder.

microorganisms

41

The patient position is determined by the _____ based on the diagnosis and with a consultation with the anesthesia provider.

surgeon

42

The surgeon's selected positions for various procedures will be recorded on the surgeon's _____ _____.

preference card

43

The _____ is primarily responsible for positioning the patient with the assistance of the anesthesia provider and the surgeon.

circulator

44

The _____ assumes the responsibility for complex positions and for protecting unsplited fractures during positioning.

surgeon

45

The proper time to position a patient depends on the type of surgery, _____, and _____ of the patient, type of anesthesia, and whether the patient is experiencing pain with movement.

age and size

46

For the _____ position, the patient is usually anesthetized after the patient is positioned.  However, a child, patient scheduled for back surgery, or for an _____ position, the patient will be anesthetized before positioning.

supine

embarrassing

47

The anesthetized patient is not moved until the _____ _____ gives permission.

anesthesia provider

48

The anesthetized patient is positioned slowly and carefully to allow the _____ system time to adjust.

circulatory

49

Excessive pressure on the chest must be avoided to prevent impairment of the ______ system.

respiratory 

50

Crossing ankles and legs causes _____ on blood vessels and nerves impairing circulation.

pressure

51

Undue body exposure should be minimized to prevent hypothermia and to preserve _____ of the patient.

dignity

52

Radial, median, or _____ nerve damage ca occur if extreme care is not used in supporting the elbow region.

ulna

53

Stirrups that are inadequately padded or improperly placed can cause pressure on the ______ nerve, which can result in a foot drop if the damage is severe.

peroneal

54

The legs should be raised _____ by two people when placing legs in stirrups to avoid dislocation of the hips.

simultaneously

55

The stirrup height is adjusted according to the _____ of the patient's legs and then elevated to an equal height.

length

56

After surgery, the legs should be brought together and simultaneously lowered very _____ to avoid a sudden drop in the blood pressure.

slowly

57

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

reverse trendleberg position

58

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

jackknife

59

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

basic prone position

60

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

trendlenburg position

61

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

lateral kidney position

62

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

lithotomy position

63

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

supine position

64

Identify the basic surgical positions and their variations.

Fowler position

65

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

A vacuum is created inside the pad by attaching a suction to withdrawn air.  This allows the pad to become firm and mold to the patient's body.

surgical vacuum positioning system

66

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

Raise and support the legs in the lithotomy position

stirrups

67

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

an adjustable arched spinal frame used whe the patient is placed in the prone position

Wilson frame

68

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

Used to prevent the patient from slipping when the head of the operating table is tilted downm such as in the Trendelburg position

shoulder braces

69

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

pad filled with foam or silicone gel to position and protect pressure points on the head, ears, knees, and elbows

donut

70

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

a double layer of a heavy fabric placed horiontally across the middle of a clean sheet on the operating table

drawsheet

71

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

a concave metal attachment that is attached on the body elevator of the operating table used to stabilize the body in the lateral kidney position

kidney rest

72

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

used when performing surgery on the hand and arm

upper extemity table

73

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

an essential positioning apparatus used for supporting the arms when giving intravenous fluids, when the site of the operation is the arm or hand, when the arm would be in the way of the operative area, and for a very obese patient when there is no space on the table beside the patient

armboard

74

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

used during lengthy surgical procedures to minimize pressure on nerves, blood vessels, and bony prominences

pressure-minimizing matress

75

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

versatile and adaptable to a number of diversified positions for all surgical specialties

operating table

76

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

a metal bar attached to the head section of the operating table to hold drapes off the patient's face, and is used to separate the non-sterile area from the sterile field

anesthesia screen

77

delivers warm air into a disposable blanket which covers the non-operative area

thermal control unit

78

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

used to extend the length of table; may be placed at head or foot end of table

 

footboard

79

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

a padded horseshoe shaped device that provides a cushion but rigid support for the patient's head with cushion support running parallel to the sides o the patient's face or the back of his or her head

horseshoe headrest

80

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

used to secure the patient during all inductions and most positions except the lithotomy position; placed at approximately mid-thigh level; should remain secure but not tight

safety strap

81

commercially manufactured or created using a solid roll of blankets and placed under each side of the chest to facilitate respirations or to elevate the chest in the prone position

bolster

82

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

sleeves wrap aroud the patient's extremity and connect to a compressor that applies pressure to the extremity to prevent venous stasis, thereby reducing the risk of venous thrombosis

sequential compression device

83

Equipment and supplies used in positioning:

used to secure the knee, most often for knee surgery

kneeholder

84

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

both volatile and flammable; should not be used on mucous membranes or open woud

alcohol (isopropyl 70%)

85

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

This agent develops a cumulative action after a period of frequent use; effective against gram-positive microorganisms

Hexachorophene (Phisoderm)

86

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

nontoxic; rapid-acting, broad-spectrum, antimicrobial agent

chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiclens)

87

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

may be combined in a solution with water or alcohol

iodine-based agent

88

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

leaves a residual effect for at least 4 hours

chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiclens)

89

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

a complex of iodine and detergent

iodophors (betadine)

90

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

produces an antimicrobial effect by penetrating the cell proteins

iodophors (Betadine)

91

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

a patient skin prepping solution in a self-contained applicator that combines two broad-spectrum antimicrobials; alcohol for quick kill and fast drying and iodophor for long-lasting antimicrobial protection

3M Duraprep

92

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

for skin disinfection, a 70% concentration is satisfactory for skin antisepsis

alcohol (isopropyl 70%)

93

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

available in solutions, sprays, and a thick gel form which only requires painting the agent onto the area to be prepped

iodophors (Betadine)

94

Types of antiseptic agents used for surgical skin preps:

is a good alternative for those patients who are allergic to iodophor (iodine)

chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiclens)

95

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

Exclude _____ and use iodophors with caution for facial preps since it can cause severe damage.

chlorhexidine 

96

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

When cleaning the external ear, insert a cotton ____ to prevent drainage into the ear.

plug

97

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

The posterior prep area for neck procedures should extend from the _______ to the lower level of the scapula.

hairline

98

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

For shoulder and upper extremity procedures, the prepped area extends from the neck to the lower level of the ______ _____ and to the midline both anteriorly and posteriorly.

thoracic cage

99

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

The prepped area for abdominal procedures extends from the level of the nipples to the upper _____ including the external genitalia.

thigh

100

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

The prepped area for forearm, elbow, and hand procedures should include the full circumference of the arm from the _____ to the fingertips.

axillae

101

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

For the lumbar region of the back the prepped area extends from the level of the axillae downward to include the buttocks and the _____ region.

anal

102

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

The prepped area for posterior _____ procedures extends from the hairline to the waistline, including the shoulders and axillae.

 

cervical

103

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

The exteral genitalia and the _____ region are included when prepping for gynecological and genitourinary procedures.

perineal

104

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

The prepped area for a knee and lower leg procedure should cover the circumference of the entire leg region from the ______ to the distal toes

midthigh

105

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

For hip and upper thigh procedures the prepped area extends from the level just below the _____, covering the affected site of the abdomen, hip, buttock, and circumference of the entire lower extremity.

umbilicus

106

Complete the statement concerning common surgical sites to be prepped.

The prepped area for ankle, foot, and toe procedures extends from the _____ and covers the circumference of the entire lower leg including the toes.

knee