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Flashcards in TBL - prostaglandins Deck (58):
1

What are eicosanoids?

Polunsaturated, oxygenated derivatives of C20 fatty acids

2

Prostaglandins are eicosanoids. True or false?

True

3

What are the three C20 fatty acids that prostaglandins are derivatives of?

Arachidonic acid
DLGA
EPA

4

What are prostaglandins classified according to?

the code of ring variants and the number of double bonds in their side chain

5

What are the R1 and R2 functional groups of PGE2?

R1 - =O
R2 - -OH

6

What are the R1 and R2 functional groups of PGD2?

R1 - OH
R2 - =O

7

What are the R1 and R2 functional groups of PGF2a?

R1 - -OH
R2 - -OH

8

PGD2 are produced during an inflammatory response. True or false?

False - during an immune response

9

PGE2 are produced during an inflammatory response. True or false?

True

10

Which PG is produced during vasoconstriction?

PGF2a

11

Prostacyclin is an eicosanoid. True or false?

True

12

What is the role of prostacyclin in relation to platelets?

It is a potent vasodilator that inhibits platelet aggregation

13

What is the role of thromboxane A2 in relation to platelets?

It is an inducer of platelet aggregation

14

How many fatty acids are PGs made from?

20 carbon

15

Arachidonic acid gives rise to which series of PG?

PGE2

16

DGLA gives rise to which series of PG?

PGE1

17

EPA gives rise to which series of PG?

PGE3

18

A minimum of how many double bonds are needed to form a PG?

2

19

What are the two essential fatty acids for our body?

Omega 3 and omega 6

20

COX metabolises arachidonic acid to a precursor. Which group of drugs block the action of COX?

NSAIDs e.g. aspirin

21

What frees arachidonic acid from the cell membranes?

Phospholipase A2

22

COX2 pathway is activated upon a physiological stimuli. True or false?

False - COX1 is activated

23

What sort of stimuli activates the COX2 pathway?

A pathological stimulus

24

At increased levels, prostaglandins make cells behave abnormally. True or false?

True

25

Which COX pathway results in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory PGs?

COX2

26

Which COX pathway results in the production of thromboxane A2 and PGI2?

COX 1

27

Prostaglandins are involved in renal function. True or false?

True

28

Prostaglandins are involved in bone remodelling. True or false?

True

29

How many types of prostaglandin receptors are there?

5

30

What are prostaglandin receptors called?

P receptors

31

PG receptors are ligand-gated ion channels. True or false?

False - G-protein couple transmembrane receptors

32

PG receptors are linked to cAMP and Na+ signalling. True or false?

False - cAMP and Ca2+

33

What type of PGs do DP receptors bind?

PGD2

34

What physiological significance does the binding of PGD2 to DP receptors have?

Vasodilation
GI relaxation
inhibition of platelet aggregation

35

What type of PG binds to FP receptor?

PGF2a

36

What physiological significance does the binding of PGF2a to FP receptor have?

Bronchoconstriction
Luteolysis

37

The IP receptor bind PGI2. What does the binding to this receptor mediate?

Vasodilation
Inhibition of platelet aggregation
Fibrinolysis

38

What binds to the TP receptor?

TXA2

39

What does the binding of TXA2 to TP receptor mediate?

Vasoconstriction
Platelet aggregation
Bronchoconstriction

40

EP1 receptor mediates GI contraction and pyrexia. True or false?

True

41

What does the EP2 receptor mediate?

Bronchodilation
Vasodilation
Stimulates GI fluid secretion

42

What does the EP3 receptor mediate?

GI relaxation
inhibition of gastric acid secretion
Inhibition of of autonomic nervous system transmitters
Pyrexia

43

What do EP4 receptors mediate?

Vasodilation
Bone homeostasis
Pyrexia

44

Arachidonic acid is involved in the omega 6 pathway. True or false?

True

45

What starts the omega 3 pathway off?

a- linoleic acid

46

In the omega 6 pathway what follows on from linoleic acid?

GLA -> DGLA -> AA

47

What starts the omega 6 pathway?

linoleic acid

48

DHA is involved in the omega 3 pathway. True or false?

True

49

EPA is found in the omega 6 pathway. True or false?

True

50

EPA and DHA are found in plants. True or false?

False - oily fish are rich in EPA and DHA

51

Fishy oil supplementation produces a dose-dependent increase of fasting blood TG but not total, HDL or LDL cholesterol in hyperlipidaemic subjects. True or false?

False - reduction in fasting blood TG

52

LCPUFA are critical for infant and childhood brain development. True or false?

True

53

DHA and EPA are high in western diets so no supplementation is required early on in life. True or false?

False - low in western diet so consider supplementation

54

A reduction in PGI2 via use of NSAIDs leads to hypokalaemia and acute renal failure. True or false?

False - hyperkalaemia

55

A reduction in PGE2 leads to increase in sodium retention, peripheral oedema, hypertension, increase in weight. True or false?

True

56

Arthrotec is a composition of which two drugs?

Diclofenac and misoprostol

57

How do prostaglandin analogues work in glaucoma?

They reduce intra-ocular pressure relieving the optic nerve; allowing fluid to drain freely

58

Latanoprost and bimatoprost are what types of PG analogues?

PGF2a