The Immune System Flashcards Preview

CVPR 330 Blood > The Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Immune System Deck (17):
1

Innate immunity

– Immediate (within minutes) and non-specific

– Complement, Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages

– Useless against infected cells (virus), malignant cells, allogenic cells

2

Acquired (Adaptive) immunity

– Delayed (days to weeks) and
specific
–  directed by T and B lymphocytes

* Features*

•  Specificity, diversity, memory, self-regulation, self tolerance
– Can be cell mediated (t cells) or Humoral (B cells)

3

Classes of Cytokines

– Interlukins (IL), Interferions (INF), Tumor necrosis Factors (TNF)

4

Primary lymphatic tissue

– Site of lymphatic cell maturation

5

Secondary lymphatic tissue

– Organs and lymph nodes

– Site of Ag presentation site of Ab production


6

T cells Lymphocyte maturation

– Mature in the thymus (taught host tolerance)

– As they proceed through clonal selection, they are tested against host cells

– If they respond aggressively they are destroyed

– Mature helper T cells move to secondary lymphatic tissue and wait to be stimulated.

7

B cells Lymphocyte maturation

– Mature in bone marrow

– Hang out in secondary lymphatic tissue

– Wait to be stimulated by antigen

8

Sequence of immune response to microorganisms.

Infection

Innate response

APC on MHC

Helper T cells

Cytokine release

Complement & B-cell Ab

Phagocytosis


9

Sequence of immune response to infected cells

Virus infects cell

Cell changes surface markers

T cells read markers

LYSIS

10

Sequence of immune response to Allogenic Cells

Foreign cell enters body

T cells read markers

LYSIS

11

Sequence of immune response to Malignant Cells

Cell becomes malignant

Foreign protein is produced

Granulocytes respond to proteins and produce TNF

Broad Immune response

12

Sequence of immune response to Foreign Surface

Granulocytes stimulated by foreign surface

Cytokines released

Marginated granulocytes become stimulated

WBIR

13

Type I Hypersensitivity reaction

•  Immediate allergic reaction on the second exposure

•  IgE mediated histamine release
– Bronchiole constriction, capillary leakage, hypotension, myocardial ischemia, increased secretions, hemorrhage, laryngeal edema
•  Susceptible patients (food allergies)
– Shellfish, peanuts, eggs, milk, beans, bug/reptile venom, drug allergies, others


14

Hyperacute Graft Rejection

– Organ has a surface antigen to which the recipient has an antibody at the time of transplant.

15

Acute rejection

– Organ has a surface antigen to which the recipient recognizes as foreign and creates and antibody against– Rejection is in weeks
– Immunosuppression is used to prevent these reactions

16

Chronic rejection

– T cell mediated

– Rejection occurs over months

17

When a donor organ is being destroyed by the host, the symptoms presenting in the host are referred to as what?

Skin rash, liver failure, weight loss, and even death can ensue

Graft Versus Host Disease