• Identify and attack foreign
All WBC originate from ?
stem Cells in Hematopoietic bone marrow
Most WBC circulate within?
vascular and lymphatic systems
Number of WBC
4,500 - 11,000 WBC / μL
higher at birth
increased WBC count
- classic sign of infection
- sign of leukemia
decreased WBC count
4,500 WBC / μL
– Caused by decreased production (chemo or
or increased destruction
Types of WBC
- Monocytes AKA: Macrophage
- Released from the bone marrow
- Removes dead and damaged cells.
- becomes Macrophage or Histocyte
- Monocyte Exists 1-2 days in circulation
T cells and B cells
WBC respond to chemical stimuli (cytokines) using the concentration of the stimuli
to direct its movement to the site of inflammation
Movement through capillary pores into body tissue
Pluripotential Stem Cell >
Myeloid & Lymphoid
Vast quantities of _____ _____ reside in the bone marrow as a reserve
Contain numerous granules in their cytoplasm which contain digestive enzymes.
4 facts of Neutrophils
- Polymorphonuclear leukocytes
- Contain multi-lobed nuclei
- Most abundant WBC
- Ineffective against foreign protein toxins
2 Neutrophils Function
- primary phagocytic cell
- sensitive to chemical
Neutrophils Life Span
- 10-12 hours in vascular space
- 5-6 days in tissue
- 50% in circulation
- 50% marginate (adhere to
endothelium) many in the
Neutrophils Bands = immature neutrophils in circulation.
Believed to be classic sign of what?
infection (“shift to the left”)
Neutrophils in premature
Immature and make them more suceptible to bacterial and fungal infections.
increased number of
decreased number of
Attack foreign proteins, parasites and function in allergic reactions
Eosinophils are Weakly phagocytic, they release what ?
Major Basic Protein (MBP) which lyses membranes
Eosinophils mature in bone marrow -> they
circulate in the vascular space, then they move to tissue space. What is their total life span?
Mast Cells or Tissue Basophils when found in tissue.
- involved in allergic, anaphylactic & chemotaxis reactions
- Attach to antigen and spew out loads of anaphylatoxins.
(Histamine & Heparin)
What organism stays until all antigen is destroyed?
Monocytes, they make up the Reticuloendothelial System (RES).
Name the macrophages found In the liver?
Name the macrophages found In the lungs?
Name the macrophages found In the brain?
Name the macrophages found In the bone marrow?
Name the macrophages from the GI tract found In the peyers patches?
Antigen Presenting Cells (APC)
Ingest antigen and present its surface molocules to antibody producing cells to provide long term immunity (memory of specific antigens)
A white cell count in which bands are detected is called what ?
Shift to the left
Dead Neutrofils =