2 gases found in the atmosphere?
Nitrogen = 78% Oxygen = 21%
Movement of atoms or molecules from a region of high partial pressure concentration to a region of low partial pressure concentration.
Difference in partial pressures. between the two areas.
The greater the gradient, the greater the movement of gas.
Hgb doe not release all of its oxygen to tissues, Hgb has the ability to save some of the oxygen. What is this called?
Should the tissues require an increase in oxygen such as during heavy exertion, Hgb can release the additional O2.
Po2 of 40 mmHg should gives us what oxygen saturation?
The actual affinity of O2 for Hgb can be determined by measuring the PO2 at which 50% of the Hgb is saturated. This is called what ?
What is the mmHg ?
P50 at 26 mmHg
The affinity of O2 for Hgb is affected by what?
- pH (H+ concentration)
↑ Oxygen affinity to Hgb (Less O2 released)
↑ pH (decreased H+ concentration)
Left Shift of the Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
↓ Oxygen affinity to Hgb (More O2 released)
↓ pH (increase H+ concentration)
↑ 2,3 DPG
Right Shift of the Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
Clinical conditions associated with a right shift of the curve include the following:
- Heart Disease
- Pulmonary disease
- Increased CO2
Clinical conditions associated with a Left shift of the curve include the following:
- Abnormal types of Hgb
- Transfusions of bank blood
- Diffusion of CO2 from the Pulmonary Capillary blood into the Alveoli
- Diffusion of O2 from the Alveoli into the Red Cell within the pulmonary capillaries.
- Diffusion of CO2 from the tissues into the blood.
- Diffusion of O2 from the systemic capillaries into body tissues.
The amount of O2 that tissues receives depends on 3 factors, what are they ?
- ) Amount of blood flow to tissues
- ) Hgb concentration in blood
- ) Affinity of Hgb for O2
CO2 is transported in 3 ways once it diffuses from tissue cells into plasma, what are they?
- ) 5 % of CO2 dissolved in plasma
- ) 30% of CO2 enters red cells where it binds to certain amino acids in the Hgb molecule.
- ) 65% of CO2 is transported as bicarbonate ions via plasma to the lungs.
Converstion of CO2 to HCO3 process.
CO2 into the RBC > + H2O > Carbonic Anhydraze = H2CO3 (Carbonic Acid) > H+ & HCO3 > HCO3 leaves the cell > Hgb picks up H+ and creates HHgb > Cl- diffuses into the cell.
CO2 removal from the lungs process?
HCO3 enters the RBC > Binds to H+ > = H2CO3 > boken down into CO2 & H2O in the presence of Carbonic Anhydraze. CO2 is diffused into the lungs and exhaled. H2O remain in the cell and Cl- diffuses out of the cell.