Wha are the 3 Functions of Blood ?
- Transportation: Delivery of Oxygen, Hormones, Nutrients, and Minerals. Removal of waste products - Hemostasis - Primary carrier of immunity
The average adults Total Blood Volume?
4-6 L which accounts for 7% of TBW.
Blood is composed of ?
– Plasma = 55%
– Formed Elements = 45%
Plasma is clear straw colored, viscous, and composed of
- 90% water
* 10% solids
Formed Elements found in blood account for 45% of the composition of blood, what are they?
- RBC (Erythrocytes)
- WBC (Leukocytes)
- Platelets (Thrombocytes)
Organelles within the cell?
- Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
- Golgi Complex
Formed elements of the blood are cells with a very specific function. What are the elements that do NOT contain a nucleus?
• RBC and Platelets
Formed elements of the blood are cells with a very specific function. What are the elements that DO contain a nucleus?
WBC depends upon ___ ___ to performits specialized function
Blood Cell Production in the 3rd WEEK begins in ?
Blood Cell Production in the 3rd MONTH begins in ?
Blood Cell Production in the 4th MONTH begins in ?
The production of mature blood cells from primitive cells in the bone marrow called?
Hormonally controlledHematopoietic Growth Factors are also know as ?
How many cells are produced daily?
During Regulation of Hematopoiesis, Multipotent stem cells are influenced by cytokines and growth factors to differentiate into ?
Unipotential cells which ultimately becomemature blood cells
During Regulation of Hematopoiesis, Hormonal influence is exerted by?
– Cytokines (IL-#)
– Growth Factors (Il-#, CSF, EPO, Thrombopoietins)
– Vitamins, metals amino acids
- Released from bone marrow fully mature
- Cary Oxygen and CO2
- No Nucleus - No Cell division
A nucleated RBC would indicate what ?
Production of red blood cells by bone marrow
Decreased blood oxygen concentration detected by the kidneys would release what ?
Erythropoietin (EPO) is released from the kidney’s peritubular cells > Stimulates stem cells in the bone marrow to produce red cells
Biconcave Disk– 7μ x 2μ
• Shape provides maximum surface area for maximum gas transfer.
• Traverse capillaries in Rouleaux Formation (single file)
RBC Life Span
120 days once the mature cell is releasedinto circulation
(immature RBC) found incirculation after blood loss
RBCs rupture when they die– Pieces are removed by macrophages in
the liver and spleen
RBC particles are called
“ghosts” or “cellstroma”
4-6 Million RBC / μL
Pathologic states effecting RBC #
– Erythrocytosis– Anemia
Polycythemia (Too many RBC)
Polycythemia Vera (PV) AKA:
Hgb > 18g/dL
RBC > 6.2X10^12/L
Hct > 55%
– Hct > 55%- This stem cell disorder, can lead to sludging in peripheral circulation leading to block in the microvasculature of the lungs and kidneys.
- Treatment = therapeutic donations
Hct < 39 MHct < 33 Fnot a blood disease but anindication of a disease process.
4 Causes of Anemia ?
- iron deficiency- vitamin deficiancy- hemolysis- autoimmune disease
How many molecules of Hgb are in each RBC?
What is the only true cellular component of blood?Why ?
- WBC- they contain a nucleus
Hematopoiesis definition ?
production of mature blood cells from primitive cells in the bone marrow called Stem Cells.
The development of blood cells is under control of protein hormones called what ?
Hematopoietic growth factors
The development of stem cells in hematopoietic bone marrow is called what?
Through a process known a differentiation, stem cells develop into what?
Mature blood cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have two functions, what are they ?
- ) Produce more stems cells
2. ) Generate mature blood cells
Name the precursor to all blood cells?
Pluripotential Stem Cell
Pluripotential Stem Cells give rise to what two lines of cells?
- ) Myeloid
2. ) Lymphoid
Myeloid line differentiate into what other cells ?
- WBC: Granulocytes & monocytes/ macrophages
Lymphoid line differentiate into what other cells ?
- T Lymphocytes
- B Lymphocytes
List the 3 steps of stem cell differentiation.
Hematopoiesis involves the differentiation of multipotential stem cells into ?
unipotential stem cells
Unipotential stem cells are committed into developing into a specific blood cell type and have lost what ?
Ability to self-Renew
Inflammatory response cytokines respond to Inflammation, tissue injury, and foreign matter. Name 3?
- tumor necrosis factors
Interlukins (ILs) function ?
Affect and enhance the functions of mature blood cells.
Interferons (INFs) function ?
Essential in the immune response to viral antigens and also for white cell function.
tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) function ?
Help protect the body against malignant cells
Garnulocyte - Colony - Stimulating Factor
GM - CSF
Garnulocyte - macrophage - Colony - Stimulating Factor
There are 13 intelukin molecues, which ILs cause stem cells to produce precursers to RBC, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, & platelets?
IL-1 & IL-6
Used to describe all molecules responsible for the development of platelets from megakaryocytes. Give 3 examples ?
- ) IL-3
- ) IL-6
- ) GM-CSF
During fetal life, where is erythropoietin produced?
Liver Continues to produce about 10% of this hormone after birth.
Other molecules necessary for blood cell development?
Vitamins: B12, folic acid
Metals: Iron, Cobalt,& Manganese
Hormones: Thyroxin Amino acids
- 96% fat - Not involved in hematopoiesis
Unlike yellow matter, Hematopoietic matter contains stem cells in its _____.
stroma, a spongy fibrous material. 25% solid material 75 % water
hematopoiesis that takes place in tissues other than bone marrow.
Extramedullary hematopoiesis, normal in the Embryo, and abnormal in the adult. If present in adult it is a sign of bone marrow malfunction. - Yolk sac- liver - spleen - thymus
Organ responsible for T lymphocyte development?
At Birth = All bones produse bloodAdult = Only flat bones produce blood; what are they?
skull, sternum, ribs, pelvis, vertebrae
In the elderly hematopoietic marrow of the cranium becomes jelly like forming what is called ?
- gelatinous marrow &- no longer plays a role in hematopoiesis.
Mature blood cells predominate in the circulation of healthy individuals. What can we expect to find in individuals with advanced diseases?
Immature and abnormal blood cells in greater quantities than mature blood cells.
Granulocytes are characterized by what ?
granules within their cytoplasm
Monocytes give rise to what ?
Leukocytes include the following:
Granulocytes:-Neutrophil-Eosinophil -Basophil Monocytes and Macrophages Lymphocytes
Solids in the blood are composed of what?
- Clotting Proteins
- Complement Proteins
- Carbohydrates: Glucose
- Electrolytes: Na+, K+, ect.