The Parotid, Temporal, & Infratemporal Regions & the Temporomandibular Joint Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > The Parotid, Temporal, & Infratemporal Regions & the Temporomandibular Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Parotid, Temporal, & Infratemporal Regions & the Temporomandibular Joint Deck (51):
1

the parotid region:

compromises the ___ gland & structures related to it

this gland is the (smallest/largest) of the three paired ___ glands

parotid

largest
salivary

2

the parotid region:

wedged b/n the ___ & ___ muscle anteriorly, & the ___ muscle posteriorly

overlaps both muscles (superfically/deeply)

ramus of the mandible
masseter muscle

sternoclediomastoid muscle

superficially

3

the parotid region:

the ___ nerve & its branches pass forward within the parotid gland & divide it into ___ & ___ parts

facial nerve
superficial & deep parts

4

the parotid region:

the parotid gland is enclosed within a tough connective tissue capsule, the ___, derived from the ___ layer of ___ fascia

a special thickening of this fascia on its deep surface is the ___ ligament which separates the ___ & ___ glands

parotid sheath
investing layer of deep fascia

stylomandibular ligament
parotid & submandibular glands

5

structures within the parotid gland (superficial to deep) (3)

facial nerve
retromandibular vein
external carotid artery

6

structures within the parotid gland:
facial nerve:

after entering the parotid gland, the facial nerve typically divides into ___ & ___ trunks (___ & ___ trunks, respectively)

they may pass through the substance of the gland, branching & anastomosing forming the ___ plexus

upper & lower trunks
temporofacial & cervicofacial trunks

parotid plexus

7

structures within the parotid gland:
facial nerve:

five terminal branches emerge from the ___, ___, & ___ borders of the gland named for the regions they supply (5)

upper
anterior
lower

temporal
zygomatic
buccal
mandibular (marginal mandibular)
cervical

8

structures within the parotid gland:
external carotid artery:

passes into the (superior/inferior) border of the parotid gland, gives off its ___ branch, & then divides behind the ___ into two terminal branches (2)

superior border
posterior auricular branch
neck of the mandible

superficial temporal artery
maxillary artery

9

structures within the parotid gland:
retromandibular vein:

formed within the substance of the parotid gland by the union of the ___ & ___ veins

usually divides into ___ & ___ branches just below the parotid gland

superficial temporal
maxillary

anterior & posterior

10

the parotid gland:
the parotid duct:

passes forward over the surface of the ___ muscle approximately a fingerbreadth below the ___ arch

pierces the ___ & ___ muscle

masseter muscle
zygomatic arch

buccal fat pad
buccinator muscle

11

the parotid gland:
the parotid duct:

opens into the ___ cavity opposite the ___ tooth

the ___ artery (branch of the ___ artery) runs forward above the parotid duct

oral cavity
second upper molar tooth

transverse facial artery
superficial temporal artery

12

the parotid gland:
innervation:

general sensory innervation to the parotid gland, its sheath, & the overlying skin is provided by the ___ nerve as it ramifies over the surface of the gland

postganglionic parasympathetic fibers reach the gland via the ___ nerve

postganglionic sympathetic innervation is derived from the ___ plexus

great auricular nerve

auriculotemporal nerve

external carotid plexus

13

the temporal fossa:
borders:

superior: ___ lines

anterior: ___ process of the ___ bone

inferior: ___ arch & ___ crest of the ___ bone

temporal lines

frontal process of the zygomatic bone

zygomatic arch & infratemporal crest of the sphenoid bone

14

the temporal fossa:
contents:

___ muscle & fascia
___ nerves
___ arteries
___ nerve branches
___ nerve
___ artery & vein

temporalis muscle & fascia
deep temporal nerve
deep temporal arteries
zygomaticotemporal nerve branches
auriculotemporal nerve
superficial temporal artery & vein

15

the temporal fossa:
deep temporal nerves:

pass around the ___ crest of hte __- bone & enter the ___ muscle on its deep surface

infratemporal crest of the sphenoid bone
temporalis muscle

16

the temporal fossa:
deep temporal arteires:

branches of the ___ artery in the ___ fossa

travel w/ the ___ nerves

maxillary artery
infratemporal fossa

infratemporal nerves

17

the temporal fossa:
zygomaticotemporal nerve branches:

enter the ___ fossa through one or more small foramina on the ___ fossa surface of the ___ bone

temporal fossa
temporal fossa
zygomatic bone

18

the temporal fossa:
auriculotemporal nerve & superficial temporal artery & vein:

ascend immediately in front of the ___

ear

19

the infratemporal fossa:
borders:

anterior: ___ surface of the ___
posterior: ___ process of the ___ bone
medial: ___
lateral: ___
superior: ___

infratemporal surface of the maxilla
styloid process of the temporal bone
lateral pterygoid plate
ramus of the mandible
infratemporal crest

20

the infratemporal fossa:
contents:

___ ligament
___ division of the ___ nerve
___ artery (1st & 2nd parts)
___ plexus
___
___ ganglion
___ & ___ muscles

sphenomandibular ligament
mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
maxillary artery
pterygoid venous plexus
chorda tympani
otic ganglion
medial & lateral pterygoid muscles

21

the infratmpoeral fossa:
pterygoid plexus:

network of ___ within the infratemporal fossa

the important point to remember is that none of these veins posses ___ so blood can potentially flow in ___

infections can spread from the pterygoid plexus in ___ to areas communication w/ the pterygoid plexus

for example, infections can spread from the ___ to the ___ cavity & ___ sinus resulting in ___ & ___

veins

valves
any direction

any direction

teeth
cranial cavity
cavernous sinus
cavernous sinus thrombosis
cranial meningitis

22

muscles of mastication:
temporalis muscle:

(small/large), ___-shaped muscle

nerve: ___ division of the ___ nerve

action:
- powerful (elevator/depressor) of the mandible closing the ___ & approximating the ___
- posterior fibers (protract/retract) the ___ after it has been protruded
- the muscle also contributes to side-to-side ___ movements

large, fan-shaped

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve

elevator
mouth
teeth

retract
mandible

grinding

23

muscles of mastication (4)

temporalis muscle
masseter muscle
lateral pterygoid muscle
medial pterygoid muscle

24

muscles of mastication:
masseter muscle:

nerve: ___ division of the ___ nerve

action:
- (elevates/depresses) mandible to occlude the ___ in mastication
- has a small effect in side-to-side ___, ___, & ___

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve

elevates
teeth

movements
protraction
retraction

25

muscles of mastication:
lateral pterygoid muscle:

nerve: ___ division of the ___ nerve

action:
- acting together, the lateral pterygoid muscles pull the ___ discs & head of the mandible forward, (protruding/retracting) the mandible
- when the lateral & medial pterygoids contract on side only, the mandible is moved laterally to the (same/opposite) side

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve

auricular discs
protruding

opposite

26

muscles of mastication:
medial pterygoid muscle:

nerve: ___ division of the ___ nerve

action:
- primary action: (elevate/depress) the mandible
- assists the lateral pterygoid in (protruding/retracting) the mandible

mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve

elevate

protruding

27

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):

articulation: the ___ process of the mandible articulates w/ part of the ___ fossa & ___ tubercle of the ___ bone

condylar process
mandibular fossa
articular tubercle
temporal bone

28

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):

modified ___ joint

allows opening & closing via a ___ action around a central axis passing through the ___ as well as anterior/posterior sliding (___) movements & side-to-side movement

hinge

hinge action
mandibular condyles
translation

29

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):

unlike most other ___ joints where the articular surfaces are covered by hyaline cartilage, those of the tmj are covered by ___

the ___ disc is predominantly composed of dense ___ tissue & some ___

synovial
fibrocartilage

articular disc
connective tissue
fibrocartilage

30

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):

the entire joint is ___

the joint is completely separated into two parts by the ___ disc (2)

avascular

articular disc

lower part
upper part

31

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):

lower part: allows mainly the hinge-like ___ & ___

upper part: allows the head of the mandible to slide (___) forward (___) onto the articular tubercle & backward (___) into the articular fossa

depression & elevation

translate
protrusion
retraction

32

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):

___ membrane lines all of the non-articular surfaces of the upper & lower compartments of the joint & is attached to the margins of the ___ discs

synovial membrane
articular discs

33

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):
synovial membrane & joint capsule:

the upper portion of the joint capsule above the attachment of the disc is (lax/taut) & allows for ___ & ___ movements

the lower portion of the joint capsule below the disc is (lax/taut), but allows the ___ movement

lax
forward (protrusion) & backward (retraction) translational movements

taut
rotatory (hinge)

34

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):
articular disc:

the disc completely separates the joint into ___ compartments

the disc attaches to the circumference of the ___ capsule at about its middle

the articular disc moves forward & backward w/ the ___

two compartments

fibrous capsule

condyle

35

accessory ligaments of the tmj:
stylomandibular ligament:

consists of a specialized thickening of the ___ layer of ___ fascia located (anterior/posterior) to the tmj

also consists of thickening of the posterior part of the ___ of the ___

attaches superiorly to the ___ process & inferiorly to the ___

investing layer ofdeep cervical fascia
posterior

capsule of the parotid gland

styloid process
ramus of the mandible

36

the temporomandibular joint (tmj):
articular disc:

anteriorly, the disc is attached to the tendon of the ___ muscle

posteriorly, the disc is continuous w/ a layer of loose ___ tissue (sometimesconsidered a continuation of the disc) which splits into two ___

lateral pterygoid muscle

vascular tissue
laminae

37

accessory ligaments of the tmj (3)

temporomandibular (lateral) ligament

stylomandibular ligament

sphenomandibular ligament

38

accessory ligaments of the tmj:
temporomandibular (lateral) ligament:

this broad ligament is attached above to the ___ tubercle on the root of the ___ process of the ___ bone & below to the lateral surface & posterior border of the ___

artiuclar tubercle
zygomatic process
temporal bone
neck of the mandibular condyle

39

accessory ligaments of the tmj:
temporomandibular (lateral) ligament:

its fibers pass (upward/downward) & (forward/backward)

it functions as a check ligament to prevent downward & backward displacement of the ___

downward & backward

condyle

40

accessory ligaments of the tmj:
stylomandibular ligament:

it functions as a check ligament in (protrusion/retraction) of the mandible

this ligament is relaxed when the mouth is (open/closed) & only becomes taut during extreme (protrusion/retraction)

thus, it does not limit ___ movement to any appreciative extent

protrusion of the mandible

open
protrusion

joint

41

accessory ligaments of the tmj:
sphenomandibular ligament:

located medial to the ___ of the joint

attaches superiorly to the ___ of the ___ bone & expands inferiorly to attach to the ___ of the ___ & the posterior margin of the ___ foramen

capsule

spine of the sphenoid bone
lingual of the mandible
mandibular foramen

42

accessory ligaments of the tmj:
sphenomandibular ligament:

it functions as a check ligament & is relaxed when the jaw is (open/closed) & becomes tense as the jaw is (opened/closed)

relations:
- lateral: ___ muscle, ___ nerve, ___ artery
- medial: ___ muscle, ___

closed
opened

- lateral pterygoid muscle, auriculotemporal nerve, maxillary artery
- medial pterygoid muscle, chorda tympani

43

the temporomandibular joint:
jaw movement:
opening the mouth:

opening the mouth involves both (elevation/depression) & (protrusion/retraction) of the mandible

depression
protrusion

44

the temporomandibular joint:
jaw movement:
opening the mouth:

the forward or protrusive movement allows greater depression of the mandible by preventing backward movement of the ___ of the ___ into structures in the ___ (e.g., ___ & ___)

full protrusion, the articular disc lies under the ___

angle of the mandible
neck (e.g., parotid & sternocleidomastoid)

articular tubercle

45

the temporomandibular joint:
jaw movement:
closing the mouth:

involves the reverse of ___

(protrusion/retraction) & (elevation/depression) of the mandible

opening the mouth

retraction
elevation

46

the temporomandibular joint:
typical dissection of the region (superficial to deep):

___
___ & relations
___ muscle
___ of mandible & ___ muscle
___ artery & branches
___ muscle
___ nerve & branches
___ muscle

skin
parotid & relations
masseter muscle
ramus of mandible & temporalis muscle
maxillary artery & branches
lateral pterygoid muscle
mandibular nerve & branches
medial pterygoid muscle

47

the temporomandibular joint:
jaw movement:
movements & muscles responsible:

depression: three muscles (3)

elevation: three muscles (3)

digastric muscle
geniohyoid muscle
mylohyoid muscle

temporalis muscle
masseter muscle
medial pterygoid muscle

48

the temporomandibular joint:
jaw movement:
movements & muscles responsible:

protrusion (protraction): one prime & two assisting muscles (3)

retrusion (retraction): one prime & two assisting muscles (3)

prime:
- lateral pterygoid muscle

assisting:
- superficial heads of the masseter
- medial pterygoid

prime:
- posterior fibers of the temporalis muscle

assisting:
- deep head of the masseter
- digastric

49

the temporomandibular joint:
nerve supply:

the articular & the dense part of the articular disc have ___

(pre/postgang) (symp/parasymp) fibers from the ___ plexus innervate the same regions of the joint

no nerve supply

postganglionic sympathetic fibers
external carotid plexus

50

the temporomandibular joint:
nerve supply: one main & two others (3)

main:
- auriculotemproal nerve

others:
- posterior deep temporal nerve
- masseteric nerve

51

artery between stylomandibular ligament & neck of mandible

maxillary artery

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