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Flashcards in Theories Of Cognitive Development Deck (18):

What are Piaget’s 3 sources of continuity

1. Assimilation - fitting new information into pre existing schemes

2. Accommodation - altering pre existing schemes to fit new information

3. Equilibrium - shortcomings in the understanding of a schema are eliminated and a more sophisticated understanding is developed


Does Piaget believe development is continuous or discontinuous



What are Piaget’s 4 stages of development

1. Sensorimotor

2. Pre operational

3. Concrete operational

4. Formal operational


What is the sensorimotor stage

Birth - 2 years

Can differentiate themselves from objects
Achieve object permanence
Begin to act intentionally


What are the first 3 stages in the sensorimotor stage

1. 0-1 month - reflexes visually track objects and suck things in their mouth

2. 1-4 months - primary circular reactions. Refine their reflexes and turn them into more complex actions

3. 4-9 months - secondary circular reactions. Behaviour becomes more responsive to the outside world and pay attention to the outcome of actions


What is the preoperational stage

2-7 years

Learn to use language
Still egocentric
Classifies object by a single feature
Cannot solve conservation


What are 2 experiments children cannot complete in the preoperational stage

1. 3 mountains task - children sat opposite a doll. Asked to say what the doll can see from their view. State what they can see instead as they have egocentrism

2. Conservation of liquid - children shown liquid in 2 glasses - a tall thin glass and a shirt wide glass. Both have same amount of liquid Asked which one has more liquid in. Say the tall glass as they cannot solve conservation


What is the concrete operational stage

7-11 years

Get conservation
Can think logically about events
Can classify objects according to several features
Cannot solve the pendulum problem


What is the formal operational stage


Can test hypotheses systematically
Become concerned with the future and ideological problems


What are 3 strengths of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

1. Lots of experimental data and research

2. Shows infants experience the world different from adults

3. Has domain generality - the transition between the stages affects the reasoning in all domains


What are 3 weaknesses to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

1. Some of the tasks may be too complex

2. Understates the affect of the social and cultural world on development

3. Children are more cognitively component than Piaget’s states


What is the pendulum problem that children in the concrete operational stage cannot solve

Asked how the weight, string length and dropping point affect the time it takes for a pendulum to swing back and forth. Children in this stage do it unsystematically


What is Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective of cognitive development

Children are social learners
Thinking and reasoning is due to social activity
Cognitive development is due to interactions children have with others


What are the 3 phases of internalised speech

1. Children’s behaviour is controlled by other people’s statements

2. Children’s behaviours is controlled by their private speech, they tell themselves what to do out loud

3. Children’s behaviour is controlled by internalised private speech, silently tell themselves what to do


What is social scaffolding

More competent people provide a temporary framework that supports children’s thinking at a higher level than they could manage on their own e.g by demonstrating how to do tasks or helping with more difficult parts


How does culture affect cognitive development according to Vygotsky

Content that children learn e.g language, skills and values are affected by culture


What is the information processing theory of cognitive development

Children improve their processing limitations e.g memory capacity by increasing their processing speed, increasing the amount they can process at one time and acquiring new knowledge


What are the final 3 stages of the sensorimotor stage

4. 9-12 months - coordinations of circular reactions. Do one to do another e.g drop toy to grasp another. Make A not B error as don’t have object permanence

5. 12-18 months - tertiary circular reactions. Don’t commit A not B error as have object permanence

6. 18-24 months - invention of new means through mental combinations - start pretend play and develop symbolic thought, capable of deferred imitation