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Flashcards in Learning Deck (20):

What is learning

change in behaviour due to experience


3 examples of social learning

1. imitation
2. mimicry
3. emulation


4 examples of non social learning

1. habituation
2. conditioning
3.rational learning
4. statistical learning


What is habituation

reduction of reaction to a repeated stimulus


What is dishabituation

increase in response when stimulus changes
2 types - 1. linear - the greater the difference in stimulus the greater the response
2. categorical - failure to discriminate between the habituated stimulus and a similar stimulus


What did Vouloumanos& Werker (2007) do and find to do with habituation

infants alternatively presented with speech and non speech sounds. sucked more to listen to speech compared with non speech


What is classical conditioning

earning a new behaviour via the process of association. two stimuli are paired together to produce a newly learned response


What did Fifer et al (2010) do and find to do with classical conditioning

attached an EEG to the infant while asleep. presented with a tone and then a puff of air on to the eyes. learned to associate the tone with the puff of air while asleep. an eye response was conditioned


What is operant conditioning

modify behaviour through the use of positive and negative reinforcement.


What is the still face experiment

mother does not react to baby and shows no emotion. when baby points mother does not look etc. baby becomes agitated. Babies of depressed mothers have less of a reaction


What is statistical learning

extract statistical regularities from the world around them to learn about the environment


What did Kirkham et al. (2002) do and find to do with statistical learning

habituated infants to a sequence of visual stimuli. then shown novel sequences. infants looked longer when the novel stimulus appeared compared to the habituated sequence


What is rational learning

Integrating the learner’s prior beliefs and biases with what actually occurs in the environment


What is rational constructivism

When infants are given prior constraints, they can integrate them into beliefs they already have. This can be used to make predictions and guide actions.


What did Xu & Garcia (2008) do and find to do with rational learning

infants shown balls being taken out of a box. 4 were the red and one white. infants were then shown a probable outcome, where more of the balls were red and the improbable outcome where more balls were white. looked longer at the improbable outcome


What is imitation

Recognition and reproduction of the goal of the observed behaviour, as well as the specific actions that brought about that goal


What did Meltzoff& Moore (1977) do and find about early imitation

less than 3 days old. infants imitated facial gestures such as sticking tongue out and opening mouth


What is emulation

learning about the environment


What did Horner & Whiten (2005) find to do with emulation

Children copied both relevant & irrelevant actions, even when clear - overimitation


What is mimickry

replication of a model’s actions in the absence of any insight into why those actions are effective, or even what goal they served