Flashcards in Working Memory Deck (18):
What is a neuron
cells that send and receive signals from the brain to the body.
cell body - contains biological information to keep neuron working
dendrites - receive input from other cells and send it towards the cell body
axon - conducts signal towards other neurons
synapse - junctions between the axon of one cell and dendrites of another
What are glial cells
cells that make myelin sheath around axons. increases the speed and efficiency of information transmission
What is the cortex
cerebral cortex - grey matter = cell bodies white matter = mylenated axons
frontal lobe - working memory, planning, decision making
parietal lobe - spatial processing
occipital lobe - visual processing
temporal lobe - memory, emotions, auditory information
Describe 4 brain scanning techniques
what is experience-expectant plascticity
normal wiring of the brain is due to general human experiences.
the brain can expect these experiences and so synapses that are used often are strengthened and those rarely used are pruned
what is experience dependent plasticity
neural connections are created and reorganised throughout life due to experiences.
How does plasticity effect brain damage
children who suffer brain damage are more likely to recover - immature brain areas can take over other functions.
recovery depends on when damage occurs - harder to recover when damage occurs in early prenatal development or 1st year of life
what is working memory
attending to, gathering, maintaining and processing information
limited in capacity and duration. differs with age
what is long term memory
consists of knowledge accumulated over a lifetime
1. factual knowledge
2. conceptual knowledge
3. procedural knowledge
no capacity or duration
3 capabilities of memory development
1. basic processes - simplest and most frequently used mental activities e.g encoding, recall, recognising
2. strategies learn new strategies e.g rehearsal, selective attention
3. content knowledge - children's knowledge increases so recall improves. better at integrating new material with old. can associate new things with others
What is visual working memory
Short term storage for visual information
Used to identify changes in the world when they occur
Give 3 reasons why a fMRI not suitable for brain scanning infants and toddlers
1. Scary environment
3. Have to stay still
What is an fNIRS
uses infra red light
Don’t have to stay still
What are 3 structural changes occur in the first few years of life
1. Synaptic pruning - inactive synapses die
2. Increase in myelin
3. Increase in gray matter
What is an EEG
records electrical activity of neurons.
non invasive - can be used with infants
What is an MEG
detects magnetic fields generated by electrical currents. non invasive
What is an fMRI
detects fluctuations of cerebral blood flow to areas of the brain.
used with children over 6.