Thought Disorders Flashcards Preview

Term IV: Behavioral Science > Thought Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thought Disorders Deck (36):
1

Hypotheses for development of schizophrenia:

- Schizophrenogenic mother
- Dopamine pathway
- Glutamate pathway
- Prenatal/perinatal injury
- Neural migration abnormalities

2

Definition of a thought disorder/psychotic disorder:

- Disorganized thoughts
- Hallucinations or delusions
- Loss of self, physical and mental boundaries
- Gross impairment of reality testing

3

Who develops schizophrenia more? Men or women?

Develop it equally

4

To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, you must have at least two of the following symptoms for at least one month, with at least one of the symptoms being in the top three.

- Hallucinations
- Bizarre delusions
- Disorganized speech
- Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
- Negative symptoms (flat/inappropriate affect, alogia, avolition)

5

What are the three exclusion criteria from schizophrenia?

- No mood symptoms that predominate
- No medical causes (thyroid issues for example)
- Not induced by a substance

6

What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia? (symptoms that are added on to normal behavior of individual)

Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behavior

7

What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia? (symptoms that are removed from normal behavior of individual)

- Isolation
- Withdrawal
- Poor hygiene
- Flat affect
- Lack of initiative
- Lack of interest
- Lack of energy

8

How long must you have symptoms to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia?

At least 6 months

9

Which schizophrenia subtype?

Preoccupation w/ one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations

Paranoid schizophrenia

10

Which schizophrenia subtype has best prognosis?

Paranoid schizophrenia

11

Which schizophrenia subtype?

Motoric immobility (catalepsy or stupor), extreme negativism, echopraxia

Catatonic schizophrenia

12

Which schizophrenia subtype still exists in DSM-V?

Catatonic

13

Which schizophrenia subtype?

Absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and grossly catatonic behavior, but there is continuing disturbance as indicated by negative symptoms in attenuated form

Residual schizophrenia

14

What medications can cause thought disorder symptoms?

Steroids, interferons, anticholinergics

15

What neurotransmitter is most associated with hallucinations?

Dopamine

16

What substances can cause psychotic disorders during withdrawal?

Alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics

17

How does schizophreniform disorder differ from shizophrenia?

- Total duration: @ least 1 month, < 6 mths
- Impaired social/occupational functioning not required

18

Sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior that lasts @ least one day, but < 1 month w/ eventual return to baseline

Brief psychotic disorder

19

One or more non-bizarre delusions that persist for @ least 1 month

Delusional disorder

20

What defines non-bizarre delusions?

Situations that could occur in real life

Ex: being followed, poisoned, infected, loved at a distance (erotomanic), deceived by a spouse, having a disease

21

What fraction of schizophreniform patients return to baseline?

1/3
(the other 2/3 are diagnosed w/ schizophrenia)

22

What fraction of schizophrenic patients return to baseline?

0% - they go into residual schizophrenia instead

23

Disorder with major mood symptoms (depressed or manic) w/ concurrent psychotic symptoms

Period of illness in which delusions are present for @ least 2 weeks in absence of prominent mood symptoms (DSM IV)

Schizoaffective disorder

24

Folie a Deux

Shared psychotic disorder - two people share a delusion

25

Stress-Diathesis model

Individual has vulnerability or genetic predisposition which, when acted on by stressor, leads to development of schizophrenic symptoms

26

From dopaminergic cell bodes in ventral tegmentum to limbic areas - overactivity

May be important in auditory hallucinations and delusions "positive symptoms"

Mesolimbic pathway

27

Dopaminergic neurons arise in ventral tegmental area and project to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - underactivity

May be important in negative symptoms and cognitive changes

Mesocortical pathway

28

Pathway altered by antipsychotic drugs causing movement side FX

Nigrostriatal dopamine pathway

29

Pathway affected by antipsychotic drugs causing prolactin related side FX

Tuberoinfundibular pathway

30

All antipsychotics block what type of receptors?

dopamine

31

Glutamate hypothesis

Psychosis result of glutamate hyperactivity - excites cells to death in areas like dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

32

What drug provides evidence for glutamate hypothesis?

PCP - causes abnormal glutamate excitation, resulting in psychosis

33

Schizophrenia arises from abnormal brain dev and manifests clinically during late adolescence and early adulthood due to post-natal brain maturation

Neurodevelopmental hypothesis

34

GLIOSIS

post natal brain injury

35

What post mortem abnormalities are seen in schizophrenia?

Ventriculomegaly, temporal lobe volume decrease, abnormal neural migration (which occurs in utero) in frontal and temporal lobes

36

Which networks are the last to mature in humans?

Frontal lobe networks