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Flashcards in Tissues Deck (86):
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Definition of tissue

(Tissu= woven) are small groups of cells that are similar in structure and preform a common or related function.

1

What are the 4 basic Tissue types?

1) nervous tissue
2) muscle tissue
3) epithelial tissue
4) connective tissue

2

What is nervous tissue responsible for?

Internal communication.

3

What is muscle tissue responsible for?

Contracts to cause movement

4

What is epithelial tissue responsible for?

Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs , filters, excretion, sensory reception.

5

What is connective tissue responsible for?

Supports, protects, binds other tissues together.

6

Epithelial tissue definition

A sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.

7

What are the 2 types of epithelial tissue ?

Covering/lining epithelium: forms outer layer of skin, forms barriers in open cavities.

Glandular epithelium: fashions the glands of the body

8

What are the 6 special characteristics of epithelium?

1. Polarity
2. Specialized contacts
3. Supported by connective tissue
4. Avascular but innervated
5. Regeneration
6. Cellularity

9

Polarity of epithelium

Has Apical surface and basal lamina/basement membrane

10

Cellularity of epithelium

Epithelium is composed entirely of cells.

11

Specialized contacts of epithelium

1. Gap junctions
2. Desmosomes
3. Tight junctions

12

Epithelium is avascular but innervated which means?

It has no blood vessels but it does have nerve endings.

13

What is special about the regeneration of epithelium cells?

They regenerate quickly

14

Epithelium always has ______ tissue.

Connective tissue (CT)

15

What is a gap junction

A communication junction between adjacent cells. Cells are connected by hollow cylinders called connexion a composed trans membrane proteins. Allows simple sugars, ions and small molecules pass through these water filled channels from one cell to another.

16

What is a tight junction?

A series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells fuse together. To prevent molecules from passing through.

17

What is a desmosome?

(Binding bodies) Anchoring junctions- like Velcro or zipper hell together by thin linker protein filaments. They bind neighboring cells to make tissues stronger and resist tension and tearing (found in heart)

18

What are the classifications of epithelial tissue?

1. Simple Squamous (endothelium and mesothelium

2. Simple cuboidal epithelium

3. Simple columnar epithelim

4. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

5. Stratified squamous epithelium

6. Stratified Cuboidal

7. Stratified columnar

8. Transitional epithelium

19

What is simple squamous ET? What does it do? Where is it found?

- A single layer of flat squamous cells
- Found where filtration or the exchange of substances by rapid diffusion is a priority.
- Found in kidneys, air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Lining of central body cavity (serosae)

20

What is simple columnar et? What does it do? Where is it found?

- a single layer of tall, closely packed cells, aligned like soldiers in a row.
- absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (reproductive cells) by ciliary action.
- Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to rectum), gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.

21

What is simple cuboidal et? What does it do? Where is it found?

- a single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei.
- secretion and absorption
-kidney tubules
-ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface

22

What is Pseudostratified columnar epithelium? What does it do? Where is it found?

- single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia.
-secrete substances, particularly mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action.
-Nonciliated type in males sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of upper respiratory tract.

23

What is stratified squamous epithelium? What does it do? Where is it found?

-thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are squamous; in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers.
-protects underlying tissues
-non-keratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a membrane.

24

What is transitional et? What does it do? Where is it located?

-resembles both stratified squamos and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamos elite, depending on the degree of organ stretch.
-stretches readily, permits stored urine to distend urinary organ.
-lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra.

25

What is a gland?

A gland consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product, usually water based, can be steroid based.

26

Glands are classified by 2 sets of traits. What are they

1. Where they release their product endocrine and exocrine

2. Relative cell number
Unicellular or multicellular

27

Oncogenes

Cancer causing genes

28

Porto onconogenes

Benign forms of onconogenes in normal cells

29

Neoplasm

New growth

30

Steps of tissue repair

1. Inflamtion
2. Organization
3. Regeneration and fibrosis

31

Inflammatory stage

Cells release inflammatory chems. Clot is formed.clot dries hardens and forms a scab

32

Organization

Restores blood supply. Granulation tissue forms under scab

33

Regeneration

When et is replaced with same tissue. Scar in dermis

34

Fibrosis

Scar tissue

35

Serous membranes

Found inside body, ventral body cavity. Moist simple squamous et resting on areolar ct. Secretes serous fluid

36

Mucous membrane

Any membrane open to outside world. Wet membrane usually stratified squamous or simple columnar et

37

Lamina propria

Thin sheet of loose ct under epithelial tissue of mucus membrane

38

Mucous membranes are often adapted for

Absorption and secretion

39

Not all mucous membranes secrete

Mucus, ex. Urinary bladder does not

40

Cutaneous membrane

Skin, keratinized stratified squamous et firmly connected to CT (dermis). Exposed to air and is a dry membrane

41

Neurons

Branching cells of nervous tissue, contain axon, dendrites and cell body. Conducts nerve impulses is not replacible

42

Neurons receive stimuli through

Dendrites

43

Axons transmit

Electrical impulses I've a great distance

44

Supporting cells

Protect and insulate the neuron. Is not excitable

45

Smooth muscle

Found in walls of hollow organs. Not stripped. Involuntary muscle. Propels things through body

46

Cardiac muscle

Found in walls of heart. Some stripes. Only one nucleus per cell, interdigitate at special junctions. Contracts and propels blood

47

Skeletal muscle

Myofilaments cause striped look. Found in "muscle muscles" may have many nuclei. Voluntary movement. Locomotion. Attached to bones or skin

48

Blood CT

Red, white, and platelet cells in plasma matrix. Transports stuff. Found in blood vessels

49

Osseous tissue

Aka bone. Hard calcified matrix has a lot of collagen. Osteocytes lie in lacunae. Supports, protects, works with muscle to cause movement. Stores minerals makes blood cells in marrow

50

Carriage types

1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Elastic cartilage
3. Fibro cartilage

51

Elastic cartilage

In ear( pinna) soft flexable. Looks like hyaline but has more elastic fibers

52

Hyaline cartilage

Contains collagen fibers which are undetectable. Looks like glass contains chondrocytes which lie in lacunae. Found in costal cartilages, nose, trachea, embryonic skeleton

53

Fibro cartilage

Contains stripes of thick collagen fibers. Chondrocytes in lacunae. Can withstand school and tension. Found in intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis

54

Dense CT

Any CT with a dense matrix

55

Elastic CT

Found in aorta, allows tissue to recoil after stretching. Has a lot of elastic fibers.

56

Dense irregular CT

Found in dermis of skin, joint and organ capsules, sub mucosa of digest. Tract. Collagen fibers placed irregularly. Withstands tension in many directions.

57

Dense regular CT

Found in tendons and most ligaments. Parallel collagen fibers. Has fibroblasts and a few elastic fibers. Attaches things and withstands stress in one direction

58

Cartilage has blood vessels?

No

59

Reticular CT

Spongy, made if reticular fibers. Loose CT. Supports other cell types. Found in lymphoid organs, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow

60

Adipose CT

Fatty, similar to areolar. Provides reserve body fuel, cushions and insulates. Under skin, behind eyeballs, in boobs, and tummy

61

Areolar CT

Most abundant, packing peanuts of body. Contains all cell and fiber types in matrix which is gel like. Holds tissue fluid. Plays role in inflammatory response, cushions organs. Found in lamina propria and around capillaries

62

Brown fat

Heats body

63

White fat

Stores nutrients

64

Adipocyte

Fat cell

65

Mast cell

Contains Heprin and histamine

66

White blood cells

Nutrophils, respond to injury

67

Fibroblasts

Build fibers

68

Fibers found in matrix

1. Collagen
2. Elastic
3. Reticular

69

2 classes connective tissue proper

Loose and dense

70

Connective tissue have what characteristics?

Common orgin

Degrees of vascularity

Non living extra cellular matrix

71

Types of multicellular exocrine glands

1. Simple tubular-
2. Simple branched tubular
3, compound tubular
4. Simple alveolar
5. Simple branched alveolar
6. Compound alveolar
7. Compound tubular alveolar

72

Simple tubular alveolar is found where?

Intestinal glands

73

Simple branched tubular ducts are found where?

Gastric (stomach) glands

74

Compound tubular is ducts are found where?

Small intestine

75

Simple alveolar ducts are found

Not in humans

76

Simple branched alveolar ducts are found

Sebaceous oil glands

77

Compound alveolar ducts are found in

Mammary glands

78

Compound tubuliaveolar ducts are found where

Salivary glands

79

Ex. Of a unicellular gland

Goblet cell
Mucous cell

80

Endocrine gland secrete

Inside the body

81

Exocrine gland secrete

Outside the body

82

Merocrine glands

Merely secrete a substandard through exocytosis

83

Holocrine glands

Accumulate products within until they rupture. Whole cell goes, Ex. Sebaceous oil glands

84

Apocrine glands

Only a part of cell is given up, debated in wether humans have this gland. Best possibility is in lactating mammary glands

85

Gland

One or more cells that make and secrete a particular product