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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (251)
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1

Antigen

A toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body especially the production of antibodies

2

Autoimmune disease

A disease in which the body produces antibodies that attack its own tissues leading to the deterioration and in some cases to the distraction of such tissue

3

Innate immunity

A type of immunity that is non-specific and response to all foreign material

4

Adaptive immunity

A specific type of immunity that responds to one antigen memory

5

Two types of immunity?

1. Innate immunity
2. Adaptive immunity

6

Mechanical and chemical barriers that protect the body

1.skin
2.mucus membranes
3.stomach acid
4.flow of tears
5. Flow of urine
6.coughing and sneezing

7

Skin

Skin is a barrier for entry of bacteria and viruses

8

Mucus membranes

Mucous membranes trap particles and move them to the surface

9

Stomach acid

Stomach acid kills bacteria and viruses stomach acid has a low pH

10

Flow of tears

The flow of tears removes bacteria and viruses

11

Flow of urine

The flow of urine removes bacteria and viruses

12

Coughing and sneezing

Coughing and sneezing and removes bacteria and viruses

13

Interferon

And interferon is a protein released by animal cells usually in response to the entry of a virus that has The property of inhibiting virus replication

14

How does a virus reproduce?

1. The virus attaches to a cell
2.The virus injects its DNA into the cell
3.The cell begins to produce viruses
4.when the cell becomes full of viruses it bursts
5.The viruses then infect New cells

15

How interferons work?

The infected cell makes interferons to signal the neighboring cells to start producing anti-viral proteins

16

Where do white blood cells develop?

White blood cells develop in red bone marrow

17

Phagocytes

A type of White blood cell that Engulfs bacteria also known as big eater cells

18

White blood cells produce what?

1. Antibodies
2. Histamines which signal infection

19

Types of white blood cells

1.neutrophils
2.monocytes (macrophages)
3.basophils and mast cells
4.Eosinophils
5.natural killer cells

20

Neutrophils

Neutrophils are small phagocytes 125 billion are dumped into our intestines daily. Neutrophils migrate to infected tissue and release lysozymes which are enzymes

21

Monocytes (macrophages)

Monocytes are large Phagocytes which migrate to infected tissue. Monocytes produce complement proteins and interferons they are found in the lymph nodes

22

Basophils and mast cells

When a mast cell is circulating it is called a basophil when a mast cell is down in the tissue it is called a mast cell. Mast cells produce histamines another signals

23

Eosinophils

Eosinophils migrate to tissues and breakdown histamines. They also secrete enzymes to kill parasites usually larger parasites like worms

24

Natural killer cells

Natural killer cells are also called lymphocytes they recognize cancer and virus-infected cells. They sit next to an infected sell and release chemicals to Lyse the cell

25

Steps to inflammatory response activation

1. The tissue is damaged and bacteria enter

2. Chemical signals and histamines are released by basophil mast cells

3. Chemical signals lead to increased blood flow, chemotaxis and, vascular permeability

4.neutrophils and other white blood cells like macrophages migrate to the injury site and remove pathogens by Phagocytosis

5.macro phages secrete hormones called cytokines that attract immune system cells to the site and activate cells involved into tissue repair

6. Inflammatory response continues until the foreign material is eliminated and the wound is repaired

26

Inflammatory response feedback loop

1. White blood cells come to injury site

2.White blood cells destroy bacteria until bacteria are gone

3. If bacteria are still present more chemical signals are sent out to attract more white blood cells until no bacteria are left

4.if some bacteria remain the cycle repeats until all bacteria are gone

27

Functions of the lymphatic system

1. Fluid balance- 10% of fluid from the blood returns as lymph

2. Fat absorption and transport- starts transport from intestine to veins

3. Immune defense- fights disease and infection

28

Lymph vessels

Lymph vessels are found near arteries and veins. Lymph vessles have valves.

29

Lymphatic ducts

1. Thoracic duct
2. Jugular trunk
3. Subclavian trunk
4. Bronchomediastinal trunk

30

Thoracic duct

Drains lymph from lumbar trunks and, lower body lumbar region and legs