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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (251):
1

Antigen

A toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body especially the production of antibodies

2

Autoimmune disease

A disease in which the body produces antibodies that attack its own tissues leading to the deterioration and in some cases to the distraction of such tissue

3

Innate immunity

A type of immunity that is non-specific and response to all foreign material

4

Adaptive immunity

A specific type of immunity that responds to one antigen memory

5

Two types of immunity?

1. Innate immunity
2. Adaptive immunity

6

Mechanical and chemical barriers that protect the body

1.skin
2.mucus membranes
3.stomach acid
4.flow of tears
5. Flow of urine
6.coughing and sneezing

7

Skin

Skin is a barrier for entry of bacteria and viruses

8

Mucus membranes

Mucous membranes trap particles and move them to the surface

9

Stomach acid

Stomach acid kills bacteria and viruses stomach acid has a low pH

10

Flow of tears

The flow of tears removes bacteria and viruses

11

Flow of urine

The flow of urine removes bacteria and viruses

12

Coughing and sneezing

Coughing and sneezing and removes bacteria and viruses

13

Interferon

And interferon is a protein released by animal cells usually in response to the entry of a virus that has The property of inhibiting virus replication

14

How does a virus reproduce?

1. The virus attaches to a cell
2.The virus injects its DNA into the cell
3.The cell begins to produce viruses
4.when the cell becomes full of viruses it bursts
5.The viruses then infect New cells

15

How interferons work?

The infected cell makes interferons to signal the neighboring cells to start producing anti-viral proteins

16

Where do white blood cells develop?

White blood cells develop in red bone marrow

17

Phagocytes

A type of White blood cell that Engulfs bacteria also known as big eater cells

18

White blood cells produce what?

1. Antibodies
2. Histamines which signal infection

19

Types of white blood cells

1.neutrophils
2.monocytes (macrophages)
3.basophils and mast cells
4.Eosinophils
5.natural killer cells

20

Neutrophils

Neutrophils are small phagocytes 125 billion are dumped into our intestines daily. Neutrophils migrate to infected tissue and release lysozymes which are enzymes

21

Monocytes (macrophages)

Monocytes are large Phagocytes which migrate to infected tissue. Monocytes produce complement proteins and interferons they are found in the lymph nodes

22

Basophils and mast cells

When a mast cell is circulating it is called a basophil when a mast cell is down in the tissue it is called a mast cell. Mast cells produce histamines another signals

23

Eosinophils

Eosinophils migrate to tissues and breakdown histamines. They also secrete enzymes to kill parasites usually larger parasites like worms

24

Natural killer cells

Natural killer cells are also called lymphocytes they recognize cancer and virus-infected cells. They sit next to an infected sell and release chemicals to Lyse the cell

25

Steps to inflammatory response activation

1. The tissue is damaged and bacteria enter

2. Chemical signals and histamines are released by basophil mast cells

3. Chemical signals lead to increased blood flow, chemotaxis and, vascular permeability

4.neutrophils and other white blood cells like macrophages migrate to the injury site and remove pathogens by Phagocytosis

5.macro phages secrete hormones called cytokines that attract immune system cells to the site and activate cells involved into tissue repair

6. Inflammatory response continues until the foreign material is eliminated and the wound is repaired

26

Inflammatory response feedback loop

1. White blood cells come to injury site

2.White blood cells destroy bacteria until bacteria are gone

3. If bacteria are still present more chemical signals are sent out to attract more white blood cells until no bacteria are left

4.if some bacteria remain the cycle repeats until all bacteria are gone

27

Functions of the lymphatic system

1. Fluid balance- 10% of fluid from the blood returns as lymph

2. Fat absorption and transport- starts transport from intestine to veins

3. Immune defense- fights disease and infection

28

Lymph vessels

Lymph vessels are found near arteries and veins. Lymph vessles have valves.

29

Lymphatic ducts

1. Thoracic duct
2. Jugular trunk
3. Subclavian trunk
4. Bronchomediastinal trunk

30

Thoracic duct

Drains lymph from lumbar trunks and, lower body lumbar region and legs

31

Jugular trunk

Drains lymph from head and neck

32

Subclavian trunk

Drains lymph from arms and superficial thoracic

33

Bronchomediastinal trunk

Drains lymph from thorax

34

Parts of a lymph node

1. Afferent duct
2. Nodule
3. Germinal center
4. Efferent duct
5. Capsule
6. Trabecula
7. Diffuse tissue
8. Medullary sinus
9. Cortical sinus

35

Capsule

The capsule of a lymph node is the outer layer which is made of dense irregular connective tissue

36

Trabeculae

Made of dense irregular connective tissue you seen as light colored open spaces

37

afferent flow

Flow into the lymph node

38

Efferent flow

Flow out of the lymph node

39

Sinuses

Open areas for flow of lymph

40

Where are macrophages found in lymph nodes?

Lining the sinuses

41

Where are lymphocytes found in a lymph node?

In the lymphatic nodules

42

What is the purpose of the germinal center of the lymph node?

It serves as the site of mitosis for lymphocytes

43

Medullary cord

Is made of diffuse lymphatic tissue

44

Functions of the immune system?

1. Recognition of self; kill everything else

2. Innate immunity: non specific immunity, responds to all foreign material

3. Adaptive immunity; specific responds to one antigen memory

45

unencapsulated lymphatic tissue

Lymphatic tissue that is not surrounded by connective tissue and

46

Diffuse lymphatic tissue

Loose collection of lymphatic tissue

47

Lymphatic nodules

Dense arrangement of the lymphatic tissue

48

Tonsils

Large collection of nodules

49

Macosa associated lymphoid tissue is found in the lining of

Digestive system

Reproductive system

Urinary system

Respiratory system

50

Types of tonsils

1. Pharyngeal tonsils- found on roof of mouth

2. Palatine tonsils- found on sides of mouth

3. Lingual tonsils- found on back of tongue

51

Encapsulated to lymphatic tissue

Lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by connective tissue

52

What are the three different encapsulated lymphatic tissues?

1. Lymph nodes
2.spleen
3. Thymus

53

What is the function of Lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes filter bacteria from lymph

54

What are the three functions of the spleen?

1. Destroys old red blood cells

2. Part of the immune system

3. Small blood reservoir

55

What is the function of the thymus?

Site of T-lymphocyte maturation

56

What is the area of the spleen where the arteries and veins attach?

Hilum

57

What are the components of the spleen?

1. Artery
2. Vein
3. White pulp
4. Red pulp
5. Trabecula
6. Capsule

58

White pulp

Contains lymphatic nodules

59

Red pulp

Contains venous sinuses and has open flow

60

Splenic cord

Contains reticular cells, macrophages and removes old red blood cells

61

Fast flow

Directly from arteries into Venous sinuses. About 88% of flow in spleen takes only a few seconds

62

Intermediate flow

Percolates through splenic cord. 10% of flow and spleen takes a few minutes

63

Slow flow

Percolates through splenic cord 2% of flow in spleen takes an hour

64

Components of the thymus

1. Capsule
2. Trabecula
3. Cortex
4. Medulla

65

Types of lymphocytes

1. Natural killer cells
2. B lymphocytes
3. T lymphocytes

66

Natural killer cells

Attack and kill cells displaying signs of not being part of the organism

67

B Lymphocytes

Responsible for antibody production

68

T lymphocytes

Attack cells showing specific antigens

69

What is Costimulation?

In some immune responses a B cell or a T-cell becomes activated when an antigen or nonself cell binds to an activation then initiates proliferation and most immune responses however activation requires the presence of a Costimulator

70

What is the cytokine?

Any of a number of substances such as the interferon interleukin and growth factors that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells

71

Process of costimulation

1. A bacteria or virus enters the body
2. Proteins combine with MHC II
3. Proteins are displayed on the surface
4.antigen persists
5. Helper T cells proliferate
6. The cloned T cells recognize the antigen

72

Antibody production

1. Clone line of B cells proliferate
2. And produce antibodies to a specific antigen

73

Primary response

The response that the immune system displays when first exposed to an antigen memory cells are created and antibodies are created for the next exposure

74

Secondary response

An integrated bodily response to an antigen especially one mediated by lymphocytes and involving recognition of antigens by specific antibodies or previously sensitized lymphocytes. Secondary responses are generally stronger and faster then primary responses

75

What are the functions of the digestive system?

1. Ingestion
2. Secretion
3. Mixing and propulsion
4. Digestion
5. Absorption
6. Defecation

76

Ingestion

Eating and drinking

77

Secretion

Cells produce products and dump them into the lumen

78

Mixing and propulsion

Also known as peristalsis

79

What are the two types of digestion?

1. Mechanical
2. Chemical

80

Mechanical digestion

Chewing and mixing

81

Chemical digestion

Enzymes break down food molecules

82

Absorption

Taking in monomers

83

Monomer

A simple molecule of relatively low molecular weight capable of reacting to form by repetition a polymer. some basic unit of a molecule either the molecule itself or some structural or functional subunit of it. Basic nutritional unit of a food item

84

Defecation

Eliminating waste

85

Components of the digestive system

1. Mouth
2. Salivary glands
3. Pharynx
4. Esophagus
5. Stomach
6. Liver
7. Pancreas
8. Gallbladder
9. Large intestine
10. Small intestine
11. Cecum
12. Appendix
13. Rectum
14. Anus

86

Abdominal regions

1. Right hypochondriac region
2. Right lumbar region
3. Right iliac/inguinal region
4. Epigastric region
5. Umbilical region
6. Hypogastric/pubic region
7. Left hypochondriac region
8. Left lumbar region
9. Left iliac/inguinal region

87

Parts of the peritoneum

1.Falciform ligament
2.Parietal peritoneum
3.Greater omentum
4.Bursa
5.Small instestine
6.Urinary bladder
7.Corrinary ligament
8.liver
9.Lesser omentum
10.stomach
11.Pancreas
12.Duodenum
13.Mesocolon
14.Transverse colon
15.Mesentary
16.Rectum

88

Layers of the G.I. tract

1. Lumen
2. Mucosa
3. submucosa
4. Muscularis
5. Serosa

89

Components of the Mucosa

1. Epithelium: interlining toward Lumen mucous membrane

2. Lamina Propria: areolar connective tissue, lymphatic connective tissue

3. Muscularis mucosa: in layer of smooth muscle

90

Components of submucosa

1. Areolar CT
2. Blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessles

3. Connects mucosa to muscles
4. Contains some glands in intestine

91

Components of muscularis

Contains thick layers of muscle contains skeletal muscle found in mouth pharynx and esophagus smooth muscle which is found in a esophagus stomach and intestines

92

Components of serosa

Contains areolar connective tissue and epithelium also has serous membrane continues with membranes that suspend the organs

93

Components of the mouth

1. Superior lip
2. Fauces
3. Tongue
4. Gums
5. Vestibule
6. Inferior lip
7. Cheek
8. Uvula
9. Soft palate
10. Hard palate
11. Teeth

94

3 types of salivary glands

1. Parotid
2. Sublingual
3. Submandibular

95

Saliva

Contains water mucous digestive enzymes it lubricates the food and starts chemical digestion

96

Parotid glands

Near ear, makes watery solution that contains high amounts of the enzyme amylase

97

Submandibular glands

Located inside mandible creates thick mucus with some Amylase

98

Sublingual glands

Located below the tongue synthesizes very thick mostly mucousy saliva

99

Lingual glands on tongue

Creates lingual lipase

100

Parts of the tooth

1. Enamel
2. Gingiva
3. Dentin
4. Pulp
5. Root canal
6. Cementum
7.periodintal ligaments
8. Bone
9. Apical foramen
10. Crown
11. Neck
12. Root

101

The difference between deciduous and permanent teeth

Deciduous teeth also known as milk teeth erupt from a child to gums. They are organized by alphabet all the way up to the letter T. Deciduous teeth include incisors canine and molars. Permanent teeth are organized by Numbers all the way from 1 to 32. Permanent teeth include incisors premolars molars and canine. Deciduous teeth do not have premolars

102

Structures of the pharynx and near the pharynx

1. Uvula
2. Pharynx
3. Epiglottis
4. Trachea
5. Esophagus

103

The process of swallowing

1. The tongue forces food to the back of the mouth
2. The food pushes against the soft palate the soft palate in the uvula rise blocking the opening to the nasopharynx
3.as the food moves down he comes in contact with epiglottis
4.The epiglottis bends to cover the glottis which is the opening to the trachea
5. Food travels down the esophagus by Peristalsis into the stomach

104

Bolus

A soft roundish mass or lump especially of chewed food

105

Oropharynx

The part of the pharynx between the soft palate and upper edge of the epiglottis

106

Larynx

A muscular and cartilaginous structure aligned with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea and humans in which the vocal chords are located

107

Superior pharyngeal constrictor

A muscle of the pharynx that is involved in swallowing

108

Middle pharyngeal constrictor

A muscle that is located in East superior pharyngeal constrictor also responsible for swallowing

109

Lower esophageal sphincter

Sphincter located at the beginning of the stomach near cardiac region

110

Parts of the stomach

1. Fundus
2. Body
3. Cardia
4. Lesser curvature
5. Greater curvature
6. Rugae
7. Pyloric sphincter
8. Pyloric region
9.duodenum

111

Histology of stomach

1. gastric pit
2. Goblet cell
3. Parietal cell
4. Chief cell
5. G cell
6. Mucosa
7. Submucosa
8. Muscularis
9. Serosa

112

Goblet cell function

Creates mucous to protect stomach lining

113

Mucous neck cells

Create mucous to protect stomach lining

114

Parietal cells

Produce hydrochloric acid

115

Chief cells

Are responsible for the production of digestive enzymes

116

G cells

Produce a hormone called gastrin

117

Gastrin

A hormone that stimulates the secretion of gastric juice

118

Parts of the gallbladder

1. Cystic duct
2. Common bile duct
3. Accessory pancreatic duct

119

Parts of the pancreas

1. Pancreatic duct
2. Pancreas
3. Hepatopancreatic ampula

120

Lobes of the liver

1. Caudate lobe
2. Left lobe
3. Quadrate lobe
4. Right lobe
5. Gall bladder

121

The liver has

Bile ducts and hepatic sinusoids

122

The pancreas has

Acini cells, pancreatic islets, To pancreatic duct

123

What happens in the duodenum?

After food move some of the stomach to the duodenum the first section of the intestine it combines with bile from the call Bladder and digestive juices from the pancreas the intestines contract and relax through peristaltic action to mix the substances with food to promote digestion

124

Parts of the small intestine

1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum

125

Histology of the small intestine

1. Villus
2.intestinal glands
3. Blood vessels
4. Lymphatic vessles

126

Cells of the small intestine

1. Absorptive cell: absorbs nutrients
2. Goblet cells: secretes mucous
3. Enterendocrine cells: secretes hormones
4. Paneth cells: involved in immune response

127

Parts of large intestine

1.appendix
2.cecum
3. Ascending colon
4. Hepatic flexure
5. Transverse colon
6. Splenic flexure
7. Descending colon
8. Haustra
9. Sigmoid colon
10. Rectum
11. Anal canal and sphincter

128

Functions of large intestine

1. Absorption of water
2. Formation of feces via symbiotic bacteria, haustral churning (peristalsis), mass peristalsis

129

How does defecation occur?

1. Mass peristalsis stretches the rectum
2. Longitudinal rectal muscles contract
3. Internal sphincter opens (involuntary)
4. We contract abdominal muscles
5. We open our internal sphincter (voluntarily)
6. Defecation

130

Functions of the respiratory system

1. Gas exchange
2. Regulates pH
3. Voice
4. Olfactory sense
5. Protection against microorganisms

131

Parts of the respiratory system

1. Nasal cavity
2. Pharynx
3. Larynx
3. Trachea
4. Bronchi
5. Lungs

132

Parts of the nasal cavity

1. Nasopharynx
2. Cribriform plate
3. Concha
4. Meatus
5. Vestibule
6. Naris

133

How the nasal cavity works

Air flows through the Naris to the vestibule it is then forced up to the olfactory receptors through the cribriform plate it then flows through the Meatus between the Concha. Turbulence makes the particles hit the mucus membranes and it then moves into the nasopharynx

134

Features of the pharynx

The pharynx is the area where the tubes cross.
1. Nasopharynx
2. Soft palate
3. Oral cavity
4. Pharynx
5. Epiglottis
6. Glottis
7. Esophagus

135

What happens during swallowing

1. The soft palate in the uvula block the opening to the nasopharynx

2. The epiglottis bends down and blocks the glottis which is the opening to the trachea

136

Features of the larynx

1. Epiglottis
2. Thyroid cartilage
3. Arytenoid cartilage
4. Cricoid cartilage
5. Tracheal cartilage

137

What is the position of the vocal chords when breathing?

Open

138

What is the position of the vocal chords when speaking?

Closed

139

Only the interior part of the vocal chords vibrate during what types of sound?

High pitched

140

More of the vocal cords are used to create...

Lower pitched sounds

141

The trachealis muscle is located

Anterior to the esophagus and posterior to the trachea

142

The tracheal mucous membrane

Goblet cells produce mucus which captures dirt and bacteria the cilia on the pseudostratified cells moves the particles out of the body

143

Components of the tracheobronchial tree

1. Trachea
2. Primary bronchus
3. Secondary bronchus
4. Tertiary Bronchus
5. Bronchiole
6. Terminal bronchioles

144

The conducting zone of the Tracheobronchial tree

Responsible for the movement of air starts at trachea and ends at terminal bronchioles

145

Respiratory zone of tracheobronchial tree

Is responsible for gas exchange begins at terminal bronchioles and ends at aveoli

146

Respiratory zone

Terminal bronchial, alveolar ducts and Aveoli

147

Gas exchange in aveoli

High O2 and low co2 inside aveoli, low O2 and high co2 outside of aveoli

148

Anatomy of the lung

1. Apex
2. Hilum
3. Cardiac notch
4. Base

149

Pleura membranes

Parietal pleura: covers wall of thoracic cavity

Visceral pleura: covers the lungs

Mediastinum: separates right and left lungs; contains heart, esophagus, trachea, etc

150

What are the muscles of breathing in?

external intercostals: pulls ribs up

Pectoralis minor: pulls ribs up

Diaphragm: expands thoracic cavity

151

What are the muscles of breathing out?

Internal intercostals: pull ribs down

Abdominal muscles: compresses abdomen and pushes on thoracic cavity

152

Ventilation (pressure differences) of lungs

Air flows from high-pressure to low-pressure

When the thorax expands pressure decreases and air flows in

When the thorax compresses pressure increases and air flows out

153

How does the lung recoil?

The Aveoli get smaller as air flows out

Elastic fibers provide stretching and recoil

Surface tension of water also causes recoil surfactants (lipoproteins) reduce this tension and prevents collapse of lung

154

High compliance

High compliance: breakdown of elastic tissue in the lung;expands to easily; example emphysema

155

Compliance (lung) def.

Ease of expansion

156

Low compliance

Inelastic fibers in the lung; lung does not expand easily; example pulmonary fibrosis

157

Controlled breathing

Controlled breathing is done through voluntary control and involuntary control

158

Voluntary control of breathing

Apnea: holding your breath
Hyperventilating

159

Involuntary control breathing

Holding your breath until you faint
And then beginning to breathe again

160

Breathing is controlled by

Medulla in the brain

Carotid artery

Stretch receptors in lungs

Muscles and joints

Pain receptors

161

How does the medulla control breathing?

Low pH which is acidic and high CO2 stimulate breathing

162

How does the carotid artery control breathing?

Low pH high carbon dioxide and low oxygen

163

How do the stretch receptors in the lungs control breathing?

They receive information about the status of your lung you don't breathe on expanded lung

164

How do muscles and joints control breathing?

Muscle contractions directly stimulate breathing

165

How do you pain receptors control breathing?

Paint stimulates breathing

166

Functions of the urinary system

Excretion of waste products

Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure

Regulation of the concentration of solutes in the blood

Regulation of extracellular pH

Regulation of red blood cell production

Vitamin D synthesis

167

Gross anatomy of the urinary system

Renal artery and vein

Kidney

Ureter

Urinary bladder

Urethra

168

Components of the kidney

Renal capsule

Cortex

Medulla

Major calyx

Renal artery

Renal vein

Renal pelvis

Ureter

Minor calyces

Renal pyramid

Renal column

Medullary rays

169

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

The nephron

170

Components of the nephron

Proximal convoluted tubule

Renal corpuscle

Arcuate artery+ vein

Distal convoluted tubule

Loop of henle

Collecting duct

Vasa recta

171

Components of the renal corpuscle

Bowmans capsule

Glomerulus

Capillary

172

Where does filtration take place?

Renal corpuscle

173

Parts involved in filtration

Filtration slit

Podocyte

Basement membrane

Fenestra (holes) in capillary

174

Molecules less then _______ can pass through the filter

7nm

175

Proximal tube

Most of the reabsorption and secretion takes place in the proximal tubule

176

What is the histology of the proximal tube?

The cells of the proximal to contain micro really to increase the surface area of the cell membrane (area limits movement)

177

What happens at the loop of henle?

The reabsorption of water

178

What are the two types of nephrons?

Cortical (85%)

Juxtamedullsry (15%)

179

The descending loop of the nephron contains

Water and solutes

180

The sending thin loop of the nephron contains

Solutes

181

The sending thick loop of the nephron is responsible for

Active transport of solutes out

182

Distal tube

Sodium is reabsorbed by active transport

Calcium and potassium are you absorbed through active transport

Calcium and potassium are you absorbed through facilitated diffusion

183

The collecting duct of the nephron is responsible for

Rehab sorption of water

urine concentration

184

Parts of the nephron and Bowmans capsule responsible for regulating blood pressure

Juxtaglomerular cells

Afferent arteriole

Glomerulus

Macula densa

Distal tube

Efferent arteriole





185

The urinary bladder and ureters contain

Stretch receptors

transitional epithelium

smooth muscle

186

Flow of urine out of the body

Urine is created in the kidneys flows down the ureters into urinary bladder goes through the internal urethral sphincter and out of the external urethral sphincter her into the urethra and out of the body

187

Unique features of transitional epithelium

Transitional epithelium stretches and the cells change shape

188

Unique characteristic of ureter

Folding and transitional epithelium allow stretch for pulses of urine

189

Empty bladder

During the relaxed filling state of the bladder, input from higher CNS to the spinal cord sends a tonic discharge via motor neuron telling the external sphincter (skeletal muscle) to stay contracted

190

When the bladder is full

Stretch receptors report a full bladder via sensory neuron to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord and parasympathetic their own fires to the bladder. higher CNS input may facilitate or inhibit reflex. The tonic discharge is inhibited on the motor neuron responsible for keeping the external sphincter closed

191

Functions of the male reproductive system

Production and delivery of sperm, by testes, scrotum and epididymis.

Male ducts assist delivery of sperm to the surface and accessory glands create substances to assist the sperm

192

Components of the scrotum

Spermatic cord

Vas deferens

Creamaster muscle

Scrotal septum

Epididymis

Testes

Dartos muscle

193

What is the function of the scrotum and why are testicles outside the body?

Sperm mature at about 34°C muscles of the scrotum raise and lower the testicles to regulate temperature

194

Components of the testes

Spermatic cord

Blood vessels and nerves

Epididymis

Tunica vaginalis

Tunica albuginea

Lobule

Septum

Vas deferens

Efferent duct

Seminiferous tubule

Rete testes

Straight tubule

Ductus epididymis

195

Sertoli cell

Elongated cells found in the seminiferous tubule's of the testes apparently the nourish the spermatids

196

Spermatids

A cell derived from a secondary spermatocyte by fission and developing into a spermatozoon

197

Secondary spermatocyte

He sold produced by mitotic division of the primary spermatocytes in which gives rise to the spermatid

198

Primary spermatocytes

The spermatocyte arising by a growth phase from a spermatogoniumv

199

Spermatogonium

Any of the cells of the gonads in the male organisms that are the progenitors of spermatocytes also called spermatoblats

200

Spermatozoon

A mature male germ cell

201

Leydig cell

Interstitial cells of the testes which secrete testosterone

202

What are the components of spermatogenesis?

spermatids

Secondary spermatocyte

Primary spermatocytes

Spermatogonium

Basement membrane

Sertoli cells

Leydig cell

203

Blood testes barrier

Prevents immune system from attacking and destroying sperm cells

204

The process of spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis is the process in which spermatozoa are produced from mail primordial germ cells by way of mitosis and meiosis.

The initial cells which start the process are called spermatogonia. The spermatogonium yield primary spermatocytes by mitosis. The primary spermatocytes divides mitotically in the first meiosis into two secondary spermatocytes each secondary spermatocyte divides into two spermatids in meiosis part 2. The spermatids develop into mature spermatozoa also known as sperm cells

205

Cytoplasmic bridge

Also known as intercellular bridge. It is a structure that connects adjacent cells are made of cytoplasmic strands

206

Components of the sperm cell

Acrosome

Nucleus

Neck

Mitochondria

Head

Tail

207

Acrosome

The Like membrane bound structure covering the anterior portion of the head of the sperm it contains enzymes for penetrating the egg cell

208

How sperm travels through the mail reproductive organs

Testes

Epididymis

Vas deferens

Seminal vesicle

Ejaculatory duct

Prostate

Bulbourethral

Urethra

Penis

209

What hormones control the formation of sperm?

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone GnRH made in the thalamus

Luteinizing hormone LH and follicular stimulating hormone FSH both produced in the pituitary gland

Testosterone produced by Leydig cells

Inhibin and androgen binding protein or ABP produced by Sertoli cells

210

How do hormones control the formation of sperm?

Gonadotrophin releasing normal stimulates the release of lien in 19 hormone and follicular stimulating hormone

Luteinizing hormone stimulates the release of testosterone while FSH stimulates spermatogenesis

Testosterone inhibits LH

Inhibin inhibits FSH

211

Ducts of the male reproductive organ

Seminiferous tubule

Straight tubules

Rete testes

Efferent duct

Ductus epididymis

Vas deferens

Ejaculatory duct

Urethra

212

Seminiferous tubule

The site of spermatogenesis

213

Straight tubule

The Continuation of the seminiferous tubule contorts which street is just before entering the mediastinum to form their Rete testis

214

Rete testes

The network of canals at the and of the seminiferous tubules

215

Ductus epididymis

Site of sperm maturation

216

Vas deferens

Stores sperm

217

Ejaculatory duct

Where semen comes out

218

Urethra

The membranous canal through which urine is discharged from the bladder and semen is discharged to the exterior of the body

219

Accessory glands of the male reproductive system

Seminal vesicles

Prostate gland

Bulbourethral gland

220

Seminal vesicles

Produces alkaline fluid

Contains fructose

221

Prostate gland

Contains citric acid

222

Bulbourethral gland

Produces alkaline fluid

223

Anatomy of the penis

Prostate gland

Bulbourethral gland

Crus of penis

Bulb of penis

Corpora cavernosa

Corpora spongiosum

Spongy urethra

Corona

Glans penis

224

Components of the female reproductive system

Fundus of uterus

Isthmus of uterine tube

Fimbriae of uterine tube

Uterine cavity

Endometrium

Myometrium

Perimetrium

Internal OS

Cervical canal

Lateral fornix

Rugae

Broad ligament

Body of uterus

Ureter isthmus

Uterosacral ligament

External Os

Vagina

225

Ovarian ligament

Holds ovary in place

226

Broad ligament

Holds uterus in place

227

Suspensory ligament

Holds fallopian tube in place

228

Parts of ovaries and eggs

Primordial follicle

Primary follicle

Secondary follicle

Cortex

Follicular fluid

Mature follicle

Medulla

Corpus luteum

229

Antrum

A fluid filled cavity

230

Parts of an egg and around the egg in the ovary

Antrum

Granulosa cells

Zona pellucida

Oocyte

231

Granulosa cell

A cell lining the vesicular ovarian follicle that becomes a luteal cell after ovulation

232

Zona pellucida

A thick transparent membrane surrounding an egg before it is fertilized. Made of glycoprotein

233

When does egg formation begin?

Before birth

234

The process of oogenesis

Germ cells move to ovary, and become oogonia (stem cells)

Oogonia divide to produce millions of germ cells

Most germ cells degenerate, at Bert's a female has 200,000 to 2,000,000 germ cells at puberty it's only 40,000 and only 400 egg cells reach maturity

235

Corona radiata

Inner layer of granulosa cells

236

Primordial follicle

Oocyte with one layer of follicle cells

237

Primary follicle

Oocyte surrounded by 1-7 layers of granulosa cells. Has a zona pellucida and Corona radiata

238

Secondary follicle

Has an antrum and an internal bulge of granulosa cells

239

Oogenesis

Formation and development of the Ovum

240

Meiosis and oogenesis

Before birth meiosis stops in stage one

Meiosis stage one resumes as follicle develops

Meiosis stage two stops in metaphase (mature follicle)

After fertilization meiosis stage two is complete

241

Parts of the Fallopian tube

Ampula

Infundibulum

242

Infundibulum

A funnel shaped structure

243

Two stratum found in uterus

Stratum functionalis

Stratum basalis

244

What is the function of gonadotrophin releasing hormone in the female cycle?

Stimulates the release of LH and FSH

245

What is the function of follicular stimulating hormone in the female cycle?

Responsible for follicular growth and estrogen release

246

What is the function of Lutinizing hormone in the female cycle?

It is responsible for the development of follicles and estrogen

It is also responsible for ovulation

247

What are the two things needed for sperm production?

FSH and high levels of testosterone

248

GnRH stimulates what?

Release of LH and FSH

249

LH stimulates what

Testosterone production

250

Is testosterone high in the testes?

Because of androgen binding protein and because it is made in the tested

251

What happens when the ducts of male reproductive system get full

Sertoli cells produce inhibin which turns off FSH production