Lecture Quiz #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Quiz #3 Deck (52):
1

How do neurons communicate?

By electrical and chemical signals which are rapid and specific, and cause immediate responses

2

What are the 3 overlapping functions of the nervous system?

1. Sensory input

2.integration and motor output

3. Motor output

3

Sensory input

Nervous system has millions of sensory receptors that monitor change inside and outside the body. The information gathered is called sensory input

4

Integration

Sensory input is processed and interpreted. The info is used to make judgements and sends out orders

5

Motor output

The nervous system activates effector organs such as muscles and glands to cause a response calls motor output

6

Two parts of the nervous system

Central nervous System (CNS)

Peripheral nervous System (PNS)

7

CNS

Found in dorsal body cavity, consists of brain and spinal chord. CNS integrates info and is control center

8

PNS

Consists of nerves that exted from brain and spinal chord. Spinal nerves carry impulses to and from spinal chord.cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain. Links all pearls of body to CNS

9

What is a nerve?

A bundle of axons

10

2 functional subdivisions of PNS

Sensory/ afferent division (carrying toward)
Motor or efferent division (carrying away)

11

Sensory/Afferent division of PNS

Divided into:

Somatic sensory: fibers gather Info from from skin, skeletal muscles and joints

Visceral sensory: gathers info from visceral organs


Sensory division keeps CNS informed of what is going on in side and out side of the body.

12

The 2 main parts of the motor division

1. Somatic nervous system: sends impulses to CNS to skeletal muscles also called voluntary nervous system

2. Autonomic nervous system: made up of visceral motor fibers that regulate smooth muscle tissue, cardiac a muscle and glands with out thinking about it; also called the involuntary nervous system

13

The autonomic nervous system is further made up of 3 sub divisions ____________.

1. Sympathetic division
2. Parasympathetic division

14

Cellularity of nervous tissue

Highly cellular

15

Nervous tissue is made up of 2 kinds of cells

Neuroglia- supper cells

Neurons- excitable nerve cells

16

What is the master controlling system of the body?

The nervous system

17

Schwann cells

Also called neurolemmocytes, surround all nerve fibers in PNS and form myelin sheaths around thicker nerve fibers. Schwann cells a are vital to the repair of damaged peripheral nerve fibers

18

Special characteristics of neurons

1. Extreme longevity- lasts a life time

2. Amitotic- do not replicate themselves

3. High metabolic rate- needs a lot of O2 and glucose

19

Neuron cell body

Perikaryon or soma

20

Neurofibrils

Along with microtubules maintains cell's shape. They are intermediate filaments

21

Where are most neuron cell bodies located?

In the CNS, they are protected by the bones of the skull and vertebral column

22

Nuclei

Clusters of cell bodies in CNS

23

Ganglia

Clusters of cell bodies that lie along the nerves of the PNS

24

The brain and spinal chord contain both ________.

Neuron cell bodies and their processes

25

The PNS consists chiefly of________.

Neuron processes

26

Tracts

Bundles of neuron processes in CNS

27

Nerves

Bundles of neuron processes in PNS

28

Dendrites

Are the main receptive or input regions of the neuron. The usually receive incomming messages towards the cell body. These electrical signals are not action potentials but short distance graded potentials

29

Nerve fiber

Any long axon

30

Axon collaterals

Axon Branches along side main axon

31

Terminal branches

Distal branched out end of neuron. Has axon terminal at the end which releases neurotransmitters

32

Axon terminal

Most distal part of axon which releases neurotransmitters

33

Functionally the axon is the______.

Conducting region of the neuron. Makes the impulses and transmits them, usually away from the cell body

34

Plasma membrane of axon

Axolemma

35

Schwann cells

Also called neurolemmocytes, surround all nerve fibers in PNS and form myelin sheaths around thicker nerve fibers. Schwann cells a are vital to the repair of damaged peripheral nerve fibers

36

Special characteristics of neurons

1. Extreme longevity- lasts a life time

2. Amitotic- do not replicate themselves

3. High metabolic rate- needs a lot of O2 and glucose

37

Neuron cell body

Perikaryon or soma

38

Neurofibrils

Along with microtubules maintains cell's shape. They are intermediate filaments

39

Where are most neuron cell bodies located?

In the CNS, they are protected by the bones of the skull and vertebral column

40

Nuclei

Clusters of cell bodies in CNS

41

Ganglia

Clusters of cell bodies that lie along the nerves of the PNS

42

The brain and spinal chord contain both ________.

Neuron cell bodies and their processes

43

The PNS consists chiefly of________.

Neuron processes

44

Tracts

Bundles of neuron processes in CNS

45

Nerves

Bundles of neuron processes in PNS

46

Dendrites

Are the main receptive or input regions of the neuron. The usually receive incomming messages towards the cell body. These electrical signals are not action potentials but short distance graded potentials

47

Nerve fiber

Any long axon

48

Axon collaterals

Axon Branches along side main axon

49

Terminal branches

Distal branched out end of neuron. Has axon terminal at the end which releases neurotransmitters

50

Axon terminal

Most distal part of axon which releases neurotransmitters

51

Functionally the axon is the______.

Conducting region of the neuron. Makes the impulses and transmits them, usually away from the cell body

52

Plasma membrane of axon

Axolemma