Flashcards in Cells Deck (66)
1. Cells are the smallest structural and functional units of life.
2. All cells come from other cells
3. All living things are composed of one or more cells.
What does the cytoplasm contain?
What is Cytosol?
Liquid inside the cell organelles are suspended in.
What is an Organelle?
A small cellular structure that preform specific metabolic functions for the cell as a whole
What is the structure of the Plasma Membrane?
The plasma membrane is composed of a semipermeable phospholipid bilayer. The medial and lateral edges of border are hydrophilic while the center is hydrophobic. Membrane also contains proteins and cholesterol.
What is the function of the mitochondria?
To produce ATP
Which organs are likely to have more peroxisomes?
Liver and Kidney cells are likely to have more peroxisomes due to the fact that these organs specialize in detoxification.
Which organs have more Mitochondria?
The Kidney and Liver because these organs are very active. Unchallenged lymphocytes have a minimal amount.
Which Organelle is the major site of ATP synthesis?
What are the three organelles involves in protein synthesis and how do these organelles interact in that process?
Ribosomes make protein, the rough ER provides a site for ribosome attachment. RER cisterns package proteins made on ribosomes in vesicles for transport to Golgi apparatus. The Golgi app. Modifies and packages the proteins for extra cellular and intercellular use.
Compare the functions of lysosomes and peroxisomes.
Lysosomes use enzymes to to digest foreign substances engulfed by cell, damaged and nonuseful organelles, to prevent build up of cellular debris. Peroxisomes detoxify harmful chems. And neutralize free radicles.
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
Serves as an external cell barrier, and acts in transport of substance into or out of the cell. Externally facing proteins act as receptors , transport proteins, and in cell to cell recognition.
What is the structure of the Mitochondria?
Rodlike, double-membrane structures; inner membrane folded into projections called cristae.
Structure and function of ribosomes
Dense particles consisting of 2 subunits, each composed of ribosomal RNA and protein. Free or attached to endoplasmic reticulum. They serve as the sites for protein synthesis
Structure and function of rough ER.
Membranous system enclosing a cavity, the cistern , and coiling through the cytoplasm. Externally studded with ribosomes. Sugar groups are attached to proteins within cisterns. Proteins are bound in vesicles for transport to the Golgi apparatus and other sites. external face synthesizes phospholipids
Peroxisomes structure and function
Membranous sacs of catalase and oxidase enzymes. The enzymes detoxify a number of toxic substances. The most important enzyme, catalase, breaks down hydrogen peroxide
What is the structure and fiction of the Golgi apparatus?
A stack of flattened membranes and associated vesicles close to the nucleus. Packages, modifies, and segregates proteins for excretion from the cell, inclusion in lysosomes, and incorporation into the plasma membrane.
Structure and function of smooth ER
Membranous system of sacs and tubules; free of ribosomes. Site of lipid and steroid (cholesterol) synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification
What is the structure and function of lysosomes?
Membranous sacs containing acid hydrolases. Sites of intraclular digestion (old/damaged organelles and bacteria)
What is the structure and function of micro tubules?
Cylindrical structures made of Tubulin proteins. Supports cell and gives it shape. Involved in intracellular and cellular movements. Forms centrioles and cilia and flagella, if present.
Structure and function of micro filaments?
Fine filaments composed of the protein actin. Involved in muscle contraction and other types on intracellular movement, help from the cell's cytoskeleton.
Structure and function of intermediate filaments
Protein fibers; composition varies. The stable cytoskeleton elements resist mechanical forces acting on the cell
Structure and function of centrioles?
Paired cylindrical bodies, each composed of nine triplets of microtubules. Part of centrosome, organize a microtubule network during mitosis. To form the spindle and astersfrm the bases of the cilia and flagella.
What is an inclusion?
Varied; includes stored nutrients such as lipid droplets and glycogen granules, protein, crystals, pigment granules
Structure and function of nucleus?
Largest organelle. Surrounded by the nuclear envelop; contains fluid nucleoplasm, nucleoli and
Chromatin. It is he control center of the cell; responsible for transmitting genetic info. And providing the instructions for protein synthesis.
Structure and function of nucleolus?
Dense spherical (non-membrane bounded) bodies, composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins. Site of ribosome synthesis.
Support and help generate movement.
What is the cell cycle?
The series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it reproduces.
What is Interphase, what happens in interphase?
Interphase is the period from cell formation to cell division. Cell is not dividing, it carries out normal metabolic activity.