Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (169):
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What is an Arrector pili

A small muscle located parallel to hair follicle. Looks like a string

1

What is a hair shaft?

The actual tube of hair. All the cells of the shaft are dead

2

Sebaceous gland

A gland next to a hair follicle that secretes sebum. Looks like a weird face from side veiw

3

What is a hair root?

The part of the hair that contains both the cuticle, cortex, medulla and the hair matrix, dermal papilla, and melanocytes

4

Hair bulb

The hair bulb contains the dermal papilla, melanocytes and the hair matrix

5

What is the medulla?

The inner most layer of the hair. Contains air pockets and large cells

6

What is the cortex

The layer of the hair that is intermediate the medulla and cuticle. Contains melanin, hair color

7

What is the cuticle?

The outermost layer of the hair. Keratinized

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What is the internal root sheath?

It lairs out side the cuticle. In the follicle.

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What is the external root sheath?

Lies out side the internal root sheath in the hair follicle. Sometimes called the epithelial root sheath

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What is the glassy membrane?

Membrane that lies out side of the external tooth sheath.

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What is the peripheral CT?

Also known as the fibrous sheath. It lies outside of the glassy membrane. It's the outer most layer

12

What is the follicle wall?

Consists of the internal root sheath all the way to the peripheral CT. Parts of the follicle that do not involve the hair itself.

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What is the hair matrix?

The area of the hair bulb that produces the hair. On top of the dermal papilla

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What is the dermal papilla?

The little nub of dermis that supplies the hair matrix with nutrients.

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What is a melanocyte?

A cell found on the lateral sides of the dermal papilla responsible for giving hair color. Looks like moose antlers

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Where does the hair follicle start?

The dermis

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Hairs act as..

Sensitive touch receptors

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Hairs are called..

Pili

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The only live part of the hair is.

The matrix

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The epidermis is composed of what layers?

1. Stratum basale
2. Stratum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum (thick skin)
5. Stratum cornea

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Stratum basale

Where cells are produced

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Stratum spinosum

Spiny-cells, keratinization starts here

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Stratum granulosum

Flat cells, visible keratin granules. Cells are starting to die

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Stratum lucidum

Only found in thick skin. Clear layer

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Stratum corneum

"Horny layer" the outer most layer of scales. Completely dead and keratinized

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The skin is composed of..

- the epidermis
- the dermis

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What are the layers of the dermis?

1. Reticular layer
2. Papillary layer

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Hypodermis

Not part of the skin, beneath the dermis, composed of adipose tissue; which anchors the skin, protects from infection and insulates.

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What type of et tissue is the epidermis?

Stratified Squamous et

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The dermis is

Strong flexible connective tissue; like a hide... The Suade part of leather

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The reticular layer of the dermis is made of DICT

The reticular layer

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Cleavage lines

Where collagen and elastic fibers run parallel. Incisions made parallel heal better

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Flexure lines

Form where dermis is closely attached to underlying fascia

34

Friction ridges

Found on fingertip, have sweat gland that make finger prints. Pattern is caused dermal ridges. Enhance gripping abilities

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The dermis supplies the nutrients and blood to what?

The epidermis

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Melanocyte

Makes melanin, found in stratum basale near dermis

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Tactile cell

Found in stratum basale near dermis, it has a sensory nerve ending which extends into the dermis

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Dendritic cell

Found in stratum spinosum. Has to do withy me system

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The cells of the epidermis have what kind of junctions?

Tight and desmosome

40

Nervous structures

- sensory nerve fiber; branching nerve
- lamellar corpuscle; spiral
- root plexus; branched around root

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Cutaneous plexus

Blood vessels in the dermis

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Eccrine sweat gland

Coily bundle

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Arrector pili muscle

Little muscle attached to hair. Pulls on hair

44

Sebaceous oil gland

Little sacs attached to hair follicle which release sebum (oil)

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Hair follicle

Hole where hair grows out

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Hair root

The very base of the hair follicle.

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Dermal papillae

Little nipple things on top of dermis

48

Sweat pore

Where sweat exits the eccrine sweat gland

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Sub papillary plexus

Blood vessels found in papillae

50

Skin is what percent of body weight in adult?

7%

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Adenoma

Tumor of the glandular epithelium

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Autopsy

Postmortem examin. Necropsy

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Carcinoma

Cancer arising in the epithelium accounts for 90% of human cancers

54

Healing by first intention

Clean wound. Suture

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Healing by second intention

Messy wound. Unattended healing

56

Keloid

Proliferation of CT during healing of skin wounds

57

Lesion

A injury or wound that tissue over a defined area

58

Marfan's syndrome

Genetic disease, lack of fibrillin in elastic fibers. Loos joints, weakens blood vessles, spider hands, vision probs.

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Osteogenesis imperfecta

Aka brittle bone disease. Defective collagen production which translates into weak bones which fracture easily

60

Pathology

Scientific study of the affects of disease on the body's organs and tissues

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Pus

A collection of tissue fluid containing white blood cells, bacteria, dead and dying tissue cells and macrophages in an inflamed area

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Sarcoma

Cancer arising in CT and Muscle tissue

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Scurvy

A disease caused by lack of vitamin C needed to make collagen. Causes tooth loss, delay in wound healing, weak scar tissue

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VAC

Vacuum assisted closure. An innovative healing process where a sponge is put over the wound and a vacuum is placed over the sponge. Induces healing when all other methods fail. Prompts fibroblasts to create collagen

65

What type of hair is found on children and adult women?

Vellus hair, this type of hair is usually fine and colorless.

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What is the thick dark hair on the scalp, eyebrows and pubic region called?

Terminal hair

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What are the 2 types of hair?

Terminal and Vellus

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The condition in which females grow excessive hair.

Hirsutism

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What are the growth cycles of a hair?

-active phase
-regressive phase
-resting phase

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Active phase of hair

Hair is actively growing, can last weeks or years

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Regressive phase of hair cycle

The hair matrix cells die

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Resting phase of hair cycle

Lasts 1-3 months, after this phase matrix regenerates sand hair grows again.

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How long can hair follicles remain active?

6-10 years

74

How come eyebrow hairs do not reach the length of scalp hairs?

Because the follicles of the eyebrow hairs only remain active for 3-4 months

75

Alopecia

Balding

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When some one loses terminal hair what happens?

Terminal hairs are replaced with Vellus hairs or the growth cycle becomes so short hairs do not emerge

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Male pattern baldness

A genetically determined, sex influences condition. Possibly caused by a delay action gene that turns on in adulthood and changes hair follicles response to DHT

78

Finasteride or propecia

A medication for male pattern hair loss

79

What are outstanding examples of some of the reasons why a person may lose hair?

-Acutely high fever
-surgery
-severe emotional trauma
-certain drugs
-too much vitamin A
-antidepressants
-blood thinners
-anabolic steroids
-chemo therapy drugs
-protein deficient diets
-lactation

80

In most cases hair that is lost can be regrowing except for?

Follicles that have be destroyed or damaged.

81

What is a nail?

A scale -like modification of the epidermis that forms a clear protective covering on the dorsal surface of the distal part of the finger or toe

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Nails and hair contain what kind of keratin? What kind of keratin does skin contain?

The epidermis contains soft keratin, while nails and hair contain hard keratin.

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What does each nail have?

- free edge
- a nail plate or body (visible attached portion)
-proximal root (embedded in the skin)

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The nail bed

The deeper layers of the epidermis extend beneath the nail as the nail bed.

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The nail matrix

He thickened proximal portion of the nail bed responsible for nail growth.

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How does the nail grow?

As nail cells produced by the matrix become heavily keratinized, the nail body slides dis tally over the nail bed

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What is the lunule?

The white crescent laying over the nail matrix

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The proximal an lateral borders of the nails are overlapped by...

Skin folds, called nail folds

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Eponychium

The cuticle, proximal nail fold which projects onto the nail body

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Hyponychoim

The thickened region beneath the free edge of the nail where dirt and debris tend to accumulate. Informally called the quick. It secure the free edge of the nail to the finger tip

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Yellow tinged nails may indicate?

Respiratory or thyroid gland disorder

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Thick yellow nails may signal

A fungus infection

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An outward concavity of the nail (spoon nail) may signal ...

An iron deficiency

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Horizontal lines on the nails

Called beaus lines, may indicate malnutrition

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A sweat gland is called a

Sudoriferous gland

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Sudoriferous gland are not found where?

Nipples and parts of the external genitalia

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The 2 types of sudoriferous glands.

-eccrine
-apocrine

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Myoepithelial cells

Specialized cells that contract when stimulated by the nervous system. Their contraction forces the sweat into and through the gland's duct system to the skin'a surface

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Eccrine sweat glands are also known as...

Merocrine sweat glands

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Where are eccrine glands found abundantly?

- the palms
- soles of feet
- the forehead

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Structure of eccrine gland

A simple, coiled, tubular gland. The secretory part lies coiled in the dermis, and the duct extends to open in a funnel shaped pore at the skins surface

102

The difference between sweat pores and pores on face.

The pores on a person's face are associated with hair follicles

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Sweat is..

Eccrine gland secretion that is a hypotonic filtrate of the blood that pass through the secretory cells of the sweat glands and is released by exocytosis

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What is in sweat?

- 99% water
- some salts (sodium chloride)
- vitamin C
- antibodies
- anti microbial substances
- traces of metabolic wastes
-urea
-Uric acid
-ammonia
-small amounts of ingested drugs
-the exact composition depends on Heredity and diet

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Sweat has a ph between 4 and 6 which makes it

Acidic

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What regulates sweating?

The autonomic nervous system

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What is the purpose of sweating?

To prevent the body from overheating

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Where does heat induces sweating begin?

- it begins on the forehead and spreads inferiorly over the remainder of the body

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Where does emotionally induced sweating start?

Begins on the palms, soles and axillae, and then spreads to other body areas

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Apocrine sweat glands are found where?

The axillary and anogenital areas

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Apocrine gland are

Larger than eccrine glands and are found in the dermis or even hypodermis. Their ducts empty into hair follicles

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The difference between apocrine secretions and eccrine secretions

Apocrine sweat contains added fatty substances and proteins

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Apocrine sweat appears

Viscous, milky or yellowish

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The decomposition of apocrine sweat by bacteria creates what and contributes to what

A musky odor which is the basis for B.O.

115

A procedure glands begin functioning

In puberty, under the influence of androgens

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Role of apocrine glands

They do not control body temp. They may be the human equivalent of other animals' sexual scent glands

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Ceruminous glands

Modified apocrine glands found in the painting of the external ear canal. Their secretion mixes with sebum to create cerumen or ear wax

118

Cerumen's Role

To deter insects and block entry of foreign material

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Mammary glands

A specialized sweat gland that secretes milk

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Sebaceous glands

Simple branched alveolar glands that are found all over the body except thick skin

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Sebaceous glands make what

Sebum; a greasy substance

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Sebaceous glands are what type of glands and why

Holocrine glands because the glands build up substance until they Burt and release their product

123

Sebaceous glands are attached to a hair but some can be free

True a sebaceous gland can be attached to a hair or have a pore on the skin surface

124

Functions of sebum

- softens and lubricates hair and skin
- prevents hair from becoming brittle
- slows water loss from the skin when external humidity is low
- bactericidal

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What is arrector pili's roll in sebum distribution?

Arrector pili muscles contract to force sebum out

126

Sebum secretions is affected by

Androgen production

127

Acne

An active inflammation of the sebaceous glands accompanied by pimples, on the skin. Usually cased by staph infection, (bacterial)

128

Function of the integumentary system

Protection, body temperature regulation, cutaneous sensation, metabolic functions, blood reservoir, excretion

129

He skin is a barrier to what 3 things

Chemical, physical and biological

130

How does the skin chemically block things

The acid mantle retards bacteria growth. Skin cells secrete natural antibiotics. Melanin blocks UV rays

131

How does the skin act as a physical barrier.

The continuity of the skin and hardiness of the keratinized cells provide a physical barrier

132

The affect of alcoholic drinks on skin permeability

Alcohol increases permeability of the skin at least 24 hours after ingestion

133

Substances the penetrate the skin in limited amounts

Lipid soluble substances- O2, CO2, fat soluble vitamins (A,D, E and K) steroids (estrogens)

Oleoresins of poison ivy and oak

Organic solvents, such as acetone,paint thinner (desolve cell lipids)

Heavy metal salts (lead and mercury)

Some drugs, nitroglycerine, and nicotine

Penetration enhancers which help ferry other drugs into the body

134

The biological barrier of the skin includes what?

Biological barriers of the skin include dendritic cells of the epidermis, macrophages in the dermis and DNA itself

135

When it is cold and blood vessels in the skin contract

Blood flow bypasses skin, allowing skin to cool down as a result slows down passive heat loss

136

Cutaneous sensory receptors

Are actually part of the nervous system. Extroceptors pick up stimuli from outside environment w

137

Metabolic functions of integumentary system

Skin aids in the production of vitamin D. Keratinocyte enzymes can disarm cancer causing chems. That penetrate the epidermis, activate steroid hormones, can turn cortisone applied to the skin into hydrocortisone

138

The function of the skin as a blood reservoir

Dermal vascular supply is extensive and can hold up to 5% of the entire body's blood volume. When other organs need blood, the nervous system constricts the dermal blood vessels allowing more blood to become available

139

He function of the integumentary system and excretion

The body eliminates limited amts. of nitrogenous wastes in sweat

140

How many Americans develop skin cancer at one point?

One in 5

141

What is the single most important factor in the development of skin cancer?

Overexposure to UV radiation in sunlight which damages DNA bases

142

What causes skin to peel in a sunburn

Fas a protein that causes genetically damaged skin cells to commit suicide to keep damaged cells from proliferating

143

The three major forms of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Melanoma

144

Basal cell carcinoma

He least malignant and most common cancer. Pearly node with ulcer in the middle, originates in stratum basale, rarely metastasizes, grows slow, easily cured

145

Squamous cell carcinoma

Second most common skin cancer, arises from keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum. Lesion appears as a scaly red papule, found mostly on the head. Grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed. If caught early and removed the chances of complete cure is good

146

Melanoma

Cancer of the melanocytes, the most dangerous type of skin cancer; because it is highly metastatic and resistors chemotherapy. Only 2-3% of skin cancers are melanoma. Melanoma can begin wherever there is pigment. Looks like a fast growing black-brown patch;1/3 evolve from preexisting moles. Early detection is key to survival

147

ABCD rule for recognizing melanoma

Asemmetry- two sides of mole do not match

Border irregularity- the borders of the lesion exhibit indentations

Color- the pigmented spot has more than one color

Diameter- the spot is larger than 6mm in diameter (size of pencil eraser)

(Sometimes E) for elevation above skin surface

148

Definition of a burn

A tissue damage inflicted by intense heat, electricity, radiation or certain chemicals.

149

The immediate threat to life resulting from burns is

A catastrophic loss of body fluids containing proteins and electrolytes. This leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, renal failure, and circulatory shock. Fluids must be replaced by IV to save the patient's life

150

Rule of nines

In adults, the volume of fluid lost can be estimated by computing the percentage of body surface burned. This method divides the body into 11 areas

151

In addition to IV fluids burn patients need...

Thousands of extra calories a day to replace proteins and allow tissue repair. Burn patients are given supplementary nutrients through gastric tubes and IV lines

152

In the case of a burn, after the initial crisis has passed what becomes the main threat

Infection and sepsis. Burned skin is sterile for 24 hours. Afterward it it vulnerable, and pathogens easily invade damaged skin.

153

First degree burns

Only epidermis is damaged. Symptoms include localized redness, swelling and pain. Heals well on its own

154

Second degree burns

Injure the epidermis and he upper region of the dermis. Symptoms are similar to first degree burns, but also include blisters. Scaring is not likely if care is taken and infection is avoided

155

First and second degree burns are known as

Partial thickness burns

156

Third degree burn

Known as a full thickness burn. It involves the entire thickness of the skin. Burned area appears, grey-white, cherry red or blackened. Since nerve endings are destroyed no pain. Skin can regrowing but not fast enough skin grafting is advised

157

Burns are considered critical when

25% of the body has 2nd degree burns

10% of the body has 3rd degree burns

3rd degree burns of the face, hands or feet

158

Why are burns at joints troublesome?

Scar tissue can severely limit joint mobility

159

Why are facial burns troublesome?

Facial burns can mean burned respiratory passage ways, which could be swollen and lead to suffocation

160

Treatment of burns

Burns are debrieded, flooded with antibiotics and then covered with a graft or membrane

161

Albinism

Inherited condition in which melanocytes do not produce pigment

162

Boils and carbuncles

Inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands in which an infection has spread to the hypodermis. Common on dorsal neck. Carbuncles are composite boils, common cause is bacterial infection

163

Cold sores (fever blisters)

Small fluid filled blisters that itch and hurt. Found around the mouth and in mucosa of mouth.caused by herpes simplex infection. Can be activated by emotional upset, fever, or UV radiation

164

Contact dermatitis

Itching, redness, and swelling, progressing to blister formation, caused by exposure to chems. That provoke allergic reaction

165

Decubitus ulcer

Localized breakdown and ulceration of skin due to interference with its blood supply. Usually occurs over a boney prominence, such as a hip or heel, that is subjected to continuous pressure; also called a bed sore

166

Dermatology

The branch of medicine that studies and treats disorders of the skin

167

Eczema

A skin rash that itches, blisters and oozes, the skin also scales. A common allergic reaction in children, but also occurs (typically in a more) in adults. Frequent causes include allergic reactions to certain foods or inhaled dust or pollen. Treated by methods used for other allergic disorders

168

Epidermolysis

A group of hereditary disorders characterized by inadequate or faulty synthesis of keratin, collagen, and or basement membrane "cement" that results in lack of cohesion between layers of the skin and mucosa. A simple touch causes layers to separate and blister. For this reason be victims are called touch me nots. In severe cases fatal blistering occurs in major vital organs. Blisters rupture and can cause infection, infections occur often