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Flashcards in Trauma and Venipunture Deck (157)
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Torus fracture:

incomplete fracture with a buckle of the cortex. Characterized by localized expansion of the cortex. Little or no displacement and no complete break in the cortex. "Soda can" appearance. Most common fx in young children.


Greenstick fracture:

(Hickory or Willow Stick) Fracture is on one side only. Cortex on one side of bone is broken, and other side is bent.


Three major types of complete fractures:

Transverse, oblique, spiral


Transverse fracture:

Fracture is transverse at near right angle to long axis of bone.


Oblique fracture:

fracture passes through bone at an oblique angle.


Spiral fracture:

Bone has twisted apart and the fracture spirals around long axis.


Comminuted fracture:

Bone is splintered or crushed at site of impact resulting in two or more fragments. Three types: Segmental, Butterfly, Splintered.


Segmental fx:

Double fracture with two fracture lines isolating a distinct segment of bone.


Butterfly fx:

Fracture with 2 fragments on each side of a main, wedge-shaped separate fragment. Has some resemblance to wings of butterfly.


Splintered fx:

A comminuted fx where bone is splintered into thin, sharp fragments.


Impacted fx:

One fragment is firmly driven into the other. Most commonly occurs at distal or proximal ends of femur, humerus, or radius.


Barton's fracture:

A dislocation fracture of the radio carpal joint. A fracture at the distal end of the radius and often the ulnar styloid.


Mallet (Baseball) fracture:

fracture of the distal phalanx caused by a ball striking the end of an extended finger. DIP joint is partially flexed, and an avulsion fx is frequently present at the posterior base of the distal phalanx.


Bennett Fracture:

Longitudinal fracture at base of 1st metacarpal.
Extends to carpometacarpal joint.
Generally includes posterior subluxation; significantly displaced; highly unstable fx.
Common football, baskeball fracture.


Boxer's fracture:

A fracture resulting from punching someone or something.
Most commonly involves the distal 5th metacarpal with an apex posterior angulation.
Best demonstrated with a lateral projection.


Colles' fracture:

A fracture of the distal radius of the wrist. Distal fragment is displaced posteriorly. Usually results from falling on an outstretched hand. Most common wrist fracture.


Hangman's fx:

Frature of the arch of c-2 usually accompanied by anterior subluxation of c2 on c3.
Sometimes called "traumatic spondylosis"
Results from acute hyperextension of head.


Hutchinson's fx (Chauffer's fracture):

Name originates from the time when hand-cranked cars would backfire, with the crank striking the lateral side of the distal forearm.
An intraarticuar fracture of the radial styloid process.


Monteggia's fx:

Is a fracture of the proximal 3rd of the ulnar shaft, with anterior dislocation of the radial head.
Proximal and distal injuries to the forearm.
Important to ensure both joints are included on the radiograph.
Results from defending against blows with the raised forearm.


Pott's fracture:

In ankle, the most common injuries are to the malleoli.
Pott's fracture involves both malleoli, with dislocation of the ankle joint.


Smith's (reverse Colles') fracture:

This is a fracture of the distal radius with anterior displacement.


Avulsion fx:

Occurs when a fragment of bone is pulled away from the shaft.
Results from severe stress to a tendon or ligament in a joint region.


Compression fx:

Caused by compression-type injury.
Vertebral body collapses or is compressed.
Evidenced by a decreased vertical dimension of the anterior vertebral body.


Depressed Fracture (ping-pong fx):

Fracture of skull where a fragment is depressed.
Appearance similar to ping-pong ball that has been pressed in by finger.


Epiphyseal fx

Fracture is through the epiphyseal plate, the point of union of the epiphysis and shaft of bone.
One of the most easily fractured sites in long bones of children.


Salter-Harris classification:

commonly used by radiologists to describe epiphyseal fractures.


Pathologic fx:

fractures due to disease process within the bone.
Commonly osteoporosis, neoplasia, or other bone disease.


Stellate fx:

The fracture lines radiate from a central point of injury with a star-like patter.
Most common example of the type of fx is at patella, often caused by knees hitting the dashboard in MVA.


Stress fx:

Result of an abnormal degree of repetitive trauma.
Generally found at point of muscular attachments.
May not be clearly visible on plain radiographs.
NM bone scan or MRI


Fatigue fx:

Occur at sites of maximal strain on a bone.
Most frequently found in metatarsals, particularly the 2nd.
Other names for fatigue fx include "stretch" or "insufficiency" fx.