Trauma PPT Flashcards Preview

Hannah RAD III > Trauma PPT > Flashcards

Flashcards in Trauma PPT Deck (51):
1

6 Ranges of Mechanisms of injury are

1. Fall
2. Motor Vehicle Traffic
3. Struck by, against
4. Transport, other
5. Cut/pierce
6. Firearm

2

What type of injury females tend to have higher injury than male?

Fall

3

What is trauma?

Define =
Age range
Range of conditions
Standard projections: ADAPTATION

4

What does it mean to be a trauma center

Emergency medical care

5

How many level of Trauma Center

4

6

Level I

Comprehensive
Type of center
Availability of imaging services

7

Level II

Same specialized care as Level I but differs by
Type of facility
Availability of specialty physicians

8

Level III

Smaller communities
Availability of specialists
Stabilize patient

9

Level IV

Clinic or outpatient facility
Minor injuries
Stabilize patient

10

What is a Blunt Trauma?

MVAs
Collisions with pedestrians
Falls
Aggravated assault (sudden danger)

11

What is Penetrating trauma?

Gunshot wounds (GSWs)
Stab wounds
Impalement injuries
Foreign body ingestion or aspiration

12

What is Explosive trauma?

Pressure shock waves, high-velocity projectiles, burns
Burns = fire, steam & hot water, chemicals, electricity & frostbite

13

Principle 1

2 projections 90° to each other with true CR-part-IR alignment
Angling of CR and IR as needed
Patient not able to move
Exception to true AP and lateral principle
Patient condition
Unavoidable obstructions
Still attempt
Document
Exception to CR-part-IR alignment
CR-part relationship maintained
Part-IR not maintained
Results in part distortion

14

Principle 2

Entire structure is included on image
Selection of IR
AP/Lat projections
Both joints should be included
Secondary fractures
“Always include a Joint” rule
Follow up exams
Joint nearest fracture site

15

Principle 3

Maintain safety for patient, healthcare worker & public
Moving equipment
Side rails
Original location
ALARA principle

16

What is Dislocation or luxation

Bone displaced from joint
Abnormal shape or alignment

17

Subluxation also called

Partial dislocation

18

Sprain

Twisting of a joint resulting in partial rupture or tearing of ligaments w/o dislocation
Severe sprain – swelling & discoloration

19

Fracture is

Break in a bone

20

Apposition

Fragmented ends make contact with each other

21

Anatomic apposition

Fragmented ends make end-to-end contact

22

Lack of apposition or distraction

Fragmented ends are aligned but pulled apart

23

Bayonet apposition

Fragments overlap and shafts make contact
Fracture ends do not

24

Angulation

Loss of alignment of fracture

25

Apex angulation

Direction or angle of apex of fracture
Medial or lateral apex

26

Varus deformity

Distal part of distal fragment angled toward midline of body (Lateral apex – points away)

27

Valgus deformity

Distal part of distal fragment angled away from midline; apex pointed toward midline

28

Simple or closed fracture

Bone does not break through skin

29

Compound or open fracture

Portion of bone protrudes through skin

30

Incomplete Fracture

Fracture does not traverse through entire bone
In Children:
Torus – Buckling of cortex with localized expansion; no complete break in cortex
Greenstick (hickory or willow stick

31

Complete fracture

Break is complete; broken into 2 pieces

32

Transverse fracture

A near right angle to long axis of bone

33

Oblique fracture

Fracture passes at an oblique angle

34

Spiral fracture

Bone is twisted apart and fracture spirals around long axis

35

Comminuted Fracture

Bone is splintered or crushed @ site of impact resulting in 2 or more fragments

36

Segmental fx

2 fracture lines isolate a distinct segment of bone
Broken into 3 pieces
Middle pieces broken at both ends

37

Butterfly fx

2 fragments on each side of a wedge-shaped separate fragment

38

Splintered fx

Bone is splintered into thin, sharp fragments

39

How much kVp need to increase for Fiberglass cast

3 to 4 kVP

40

How much kVp need to increase for Small to medium plaster cast

5-7 kVp

41

How much kVp need to increase for Large plaster cast

8-10 kVp

42

What need to do with Patient Motion

Short exposure time
Small focal spot

43

Move the tube and IR rather than

the patient

44

Position the stretcher adjacent to

The upright Bucky
Higher grid ratio

45

For AP projections Move the pt

Superiorly to inferiorly

46

For Lateral projections move the pt

Inferiorly to superiorly

47

For Oblique projections need

Separate structures

48

For Supine position

Image patient by reversing or modifying projection

49

For pt with Penetrated foreign object

Mark the entrance and exit wound
Visible on all projections
2 projections required

50

For Aspirated or swallowed object

Moving patient
Do not leave alone

51

"Best Practices” In Trauma are:

I. Speed: Quality images in short amount of time
II. Accuracy: Minimal amount of distortion and maximum amount of detail
III. Quality: High quality images even when moving quickly
IV. Positioning: Principle #1
V. Practice standard precautions
VI. Immobilization
VII. Anticipation
Special projections
VIII. Attention to detail (patient)
IX. Attention to protocol & scope of practice
X. Professionalism