# Triplett Flashcards

1
Q

How did Triplett (1898) explain the underperformance of some children in his experiment?

A

Overstimulation

2
Q

Who posted the first ever study in social psych

A

triplett

3
Q

Where did Tripplet work

A

1901: Faculty at Kansas Normal School, Emporia

Head of the department of child study for 30 years

4
Q

Why was Triplett curious about cycling

A

• Triplett was a keen sportsman
• He noticed that cyclists ride faster when in a group
 Analysis of results from cycling events by the Racing Board of the League of American Wheelman for the 1897 season

5
Q

What did Tripplet observe from League of American Wheelman for the 1897 season

A
1. Races against other riders
2. Paced races against time
3. Unpaced races against time
6
Q

How much faster were races against other riders?

A

26% (on average 40 secs/mile faster)

7
Q

how much faster were races against pace

A

23% (on average 34 secs/mile faster)

8
Q

What theories did Triplett suggest

A
• suction
• shelter
• encouragement
• worry
• hynoptic suggestion
• automatic
• dynamogenic
9
Q

WHich to researchers used field and lab studies

A

triplett and festinger

10
Q

Who worked in one of the first established experimental labs

A

triplett

11
Q

What is a competition machine

A

Two fishing reels that each pull a flag across a 4m circuit when reeled rapidly

12
Q

What were the Stopwatch and Kymograph used for

A

Record the time and a graphical record of the rate at which participants turned the fishing reel

13
Q

What was Triplett’s method using children

A
• N = 40 children, age: 8-17 years (out of nearly 225 individuals)
• Practice rounds: until all children are familiar with the machine
• Trials: 6 trials of 4 rounds, lasting 30-40 sec each, 5 mins rest in-between
• Group A: alone,competition, alone, competition, alone, competition
• Group B: alone, alone, competition, alone, competition, alone
14
Q

what was tripletts results using children

A
• No statistical analysis at the time; presentation of raw data & drawings
• 3 tables presented:

(1. ) Positively stimulated (N = 20): Faster times in competition
(2. ) Overstimulated: (N = 10) Slower times in competition
(3. ) Little affected (N = 10): Same times competition and alone

15
Q

What was Tripplets interpretation of th eresults

A

overstimulated

16
Q

What did Strube criticise

A

• Triplett did not have statistical techniques available
• Strube’s (2005) analysis of Triplett’s data shows:
– Significant competition effect in trial 3 between Group A (competition) and Group B (alone) – no other significant differences!
– Within-subjects analysis: Contrast between average competition times (M = 37.45 sec) and average alone times (M = 38.14 sec) shows significant but small difference (p = .048)
– Small reduction of 1.81% in trial times

17
Q

What other researchers looked more closely at when groups reduce performance

A
1. Ringelmann: Social loafing
2. Zajonc: Social facilitation and social loafing in animals and humans
3. Latané: Social inhibition/social loafing
18
Q

what is the Ringelmann effect

A

Max Ringelmann conducted studies in the 1880s that examined how group size affects individual effort
Published in 1913 in a French agricultural journal
Task: Men in groups of different sizes pull on a rope
Dependent variable: Force
Result: Increase in total force exerted is less than would be expected from the addition of individual scores
Everyone pulls a little less because of diffusion of responsibility
 Motivational loss?

19
Q

What was Zajonc’s interpretation

A

Inconsistencies in findings regarding social facilitation stifle research in the 1940s and 1950s
Robert Zajonc (1965) uses drive theory to explain inconsistencies:
• Presence of other people as a source of arousal
• Arousal tends to facilitate the dominant response
• Simple/well-learned tasks: Dominant responses tend to be correct
 Presence of others should lead to social facilitation
• Complex/novel tasks: Dominant responses usually incorrect or inefficient
 Presence of others should lead to social inhibition

20
Q

What is social facilitation research

A

– Observers, co-actors, audience members

– Lead to arousal, evaluation, distraction

21
Q

what is social loafing research

A

– Co-workers or teammates

– Opportunity to reduce efforts

22
Q

How has Tripplet set a mark for good research

A
1. Multiple methodologies
2. Multiple theories, competing hypotheses
3. Precision and attention to detail
4. Modelling of real-world dynamics in a controlled environment
5. Control of confounding variables