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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (89):
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Jamestown

-1st permanent settlement
-virginia company started in 1607 in honor of king james 2
-wanted to find: natural resources, gold, citrus, oil, tar, NW passage, naval
-2/3 died of disease and hunger

1

captain john smith & jamestown

saved jamestown by bargaining for food w powhatan indians
-got injury and left (1609)
-colony weakened
-period of starvation and cannibalism

2

Thomas Gates & Jamestown

-new governor
-made town work for food
-colony started to prosper w tobacco

3

John Rolfe & Jamestown

married pochontas
-marriage brought peace b/w people and natives

4

headright policy

anyone who can pay way from europe to colony gets 50 acres of and 50 for each servant
-settlers brought problems: disease, hunger, attacks

5

New England/northern colonies

MA(gov and religion intertwined), NH(fishing), RI(no religion in gov), Conn
-pilgrims and puritans (1620)
-difficult farming, long winter, rocky soil, thick forest
-fishing and trade

6

Southern

Maryland(owned by lord baltimore, refuge for Catholics), VI(tobacco), NC(tobacco), SC(rice), GA(poor)
-rich soil and warm
-tobacco, rice, indigo
-planters relied on slaves

7

Middle Colonies

NY(Dutch and English), NJ(religious freedom), Penn(Quakers escaped persecution), Delaware
-William Penn given permission by Charles to create colony
-exported grain, wheat, barley to europe
-merchants, mechanics, traders, and shippers

8

Mayflower Compact & Northern Colonies

how to set up gov that they would have--very influential

9

indentured servant

agreed to work for paid trip, food, shelter for 4 years
-after 4 yrs they became slaves and werent given land

10

bacons rebellion

Nathanial Bacon helped indentured servants fight against natives and resist taxes
-convinced wealthy that land should be given to farmers
-pushed natives off land
-increased VI's reliance on slaves instead of servants
-started slave trade

11

slave trade

could barter and trade w other plantation owners
-population increase
-disease that killed them
-13-20% died on ship trade

12

the middle passage

passage over pacific from W africa to america for slave trade

13

navigation acts/glorious revolution

1660
lumber North
iron Middle
Cotton South
-shipped to England, constructed into products, and sent back
-most products only sold in england
-all ships had to be built in england and taxed

14

mercantilism

a system based on idea that nation could increase money by importing materials and then exporting finished product
-angered people
-increased smuggling

15

treaty of paris 1763

-ends french and indian war
-eliminates french as colonial power
-brit gets canada and french territory E of MI
-colonists heavily taxed to pay for war

16

proclamation line of 1763

put a line to separate colonists on one side b/c they didnt want colonists to claim more land...est. by king george

17

effects of navigation acts and glorious revolution

-caused smuggling
-Charles 2 took away MA charter
-William and Mary took over: didn't raise taxes, more rights, helped american government

18

Virginia House of Burgesses

1st elective law making body in americas

19

brit vs french 1689

4 wars
-4/4 is the french and indian war that spread to europe and became the 7 yrs war
-over land (Ohio)
-George washington organizes militia

20

Non importation agreements

-colonial resistance to british control
-set of agreements between all the colonies initiated by the stamp act congress which boycotted all british goods

21

stamp act 1765

-required shipping w stamp to help pay for french and indian war
-to pay a tax on all printed materials

22

Loyalists

Colonists who disagreed with parliaments policies but still had loyalty to the king and believed the british laws should be upheld

23

Patriots

Believed the british government had become tyrants

24

Declaration of Independence

Drafted by Thomas Jefferson. Document that stated the colonies would dissolve all ties with Britain. Proclaimed themselves the United States of America

25

townshend act

-tax on glass, lead, paper, and tea
-indirect tax collected at seaports

26

Constitution

To preserve the states rights they used federalism, divided power. Divided congress into a legislative branch and a judicial branch

27

boston massacre

3/5/1770
-mob of colonists harrassing british troops
-troops open fire and 5 colonists die

28

Elastic clause/necessary proper clause

A statement in the us constitution granting congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers.

29

boston tea party 1773

-every tea co taken over, colonists could only buy from brit east india co
-colonists raided 3 brit ships and dumped tea in harbor dressed and indians

30

1st continental congress

reps from 13 colonies joined in phil
-boycott all trade w england
-called acts "Intolerable Acts"
-appeal to king george 3
-american rev starts w battle of lexington and concord

31

constitutional convention

GW elected

32

VI plan

James Madison liked
-called for bicameral legis
-# of reps depends on pop of state

33

NJ plan

called for unicameral legis
-every state receives one vote


BOTH wanted strong national gov w 3 branches

34

Roanoke

1st settlement in colony
-sir walter raleigh (1584) landed there
-named virginia after queen elizabeth
-found fertile land and decided to stay
-settlement failed: food shortage, troubles with natives and spain

35

Great compromise/Connecticut plan

-bicameral congress
-house or reps: each state rep according to pop
-senate: each state has 2 senators
-both houses must pass every law

36

3/5 compromise

only 3/5 slaves counted

37

articles of confederation

1781
congressss was unicameral
-all 13 states must agree on amendments
-9/13 agree on fed laws
-could raise armies, decalre war, sign treaties
-couldnt raise taxes, regulate trade, collect tariffs
-states had more power than fed gov

38

failure of articles of confederation

currency issues, debt: congress couldnt tax people, owed money to other countries from rev. war, hadnt paid soldiers. international and domestic problems: lacked military power, states seldom agreed, laws were difficult to pass

39

federalism

shared powers among federal government and state government

40

colonial act

-colonists had to provide home, food, trans, for soldiers

41

alexander hamilton's economic plan

pay back all federal and state bonds, combine all state and federal debt into 1 national debt
-james madison disagreed

42

speculators

got rich from buying peoples bonds (money given to government promised to be paid back at a greater price later) for a cheaper price
-lived in north
-very rich

43

hamiltons compromise

south agreed to take over debt of north states if north agreed to move the capital to washington DC

44

alexander hamilton

secretary of treasury
-federalist

45

federalist

favored trade, manufacturing and cities
-believed fed gov should have more power than states
-loose interpretation of constitution
-pro british
-favored bank
-favored tariff

46

Thomas jefferson and republican party

-democratic republican
-favored strict limits on the governments power and protection of the states rights
-support agriculture over commerce and trade
-strong in the south and the west

47

democratic republican

favored farmers and rural
-believed states should have more power
-strict interpretation of constitution
-pro french
-oppose bank and tariffs

48

alien act 1798

-allowed president to deport any alien considered dangerous
-increased number of years to become a citizen
-helped stop immigrants for voting dem-rep

49

sedition act 1798

anyone could be fined and sent to prison for publishing/saying anything against gov

50

KY and VI resolutions

thomas jefferson claimed alien and sedition acts were unconstitutional
-KY and VI claimed states had right to nullify any fed law that is unconstitutional

51

marbury vs madison (sec of state)

-john marshall declared judiciary act 1789 unconstitutional
-act was declared invalid
-established power of judicial review: power of federal court to decide whether an act of congress is const. or unconst.

52

the Louisiana purchase

-france was on brink of war with brit and needed $
-Napoleon sold Louis for 1.5 mil (1803)
-doubled size of US

53

Louis and Clark

sent to find all water route across continent
-sacagawea served as guide and interpreter

54

war of 1812

US profited by selling goods to brit and france
-they both realized and they seized US ships sailing towards ports of enemy
-attacked Washington DC 1814

55

treaty of ghent

ended war, did not resolve any problems b/w brit and US

56

battle of New Orleans

-led by andrew jackson
-US defeats GB
-secured louisiana purchase, brought pride, manifest destiny (atlantic to pacific)

57

effects of war of 1812

-destroyed fed party
-foreign respect
-national pride
-increase in manufacturing
-less native resistance

58

madisons presidency

1809-1817
-"era of good feelings"

59

monroe doctrine

1817-1825
-N & S US should no longer be thought of as colonization opportunity for europe
-US would not interfere w european affairs
-protect new independence of Latin American nations
-keep russia from moving S into US from alaska

60

industrial revolution

massive change in social and economic organization
began w brits
-began because of embargo act (no trade w foreign countries)

61

battle of saratoga

1776-huge victory for US

62

treaty of paris 1783

brit recognized US as free

63

Triangular Trade

exchanges of goods among colonies, england, caribbean, and africa

64

immgration

could worship freely but not vote
included germans, scots, irish, and jews

65

Enlightenment

philopsophers
john locke, rosseau, montesquieu

66

the Great Awakening

resurgence of religious fever
baptists gained farmers, enslaved africans, and 20% of whites

67

stamp act congress

dissolved declaration of rights and grievances, saying only reps elected by colonists could tax them

68

committees of correspondence

to communicate strategy to defy britain

69

lexington

british reached 70 minute men

70

concord

farmers fired and trapped british

71

bill of rights

freedom of speech, press, religion, trial, search and seizure

72

steamboat

-offered more efficient way to transport goods and cheaper
-Robert Livington promoted
-economy: carried people and goods

73

the telegraph

Samuel Morse created
-major improvement in communications
-during Industrial Revolution
-used by journalists, word wide news, to convey battle results, to change strategy, open paths for new businesses

74

Cotton Gin

Eli Whitney
-increased slaves in south
-removes seeds from the balls of cotton
-cotton was most important crop

75

sewing machine

-Elias Howe
-used at textile mills in the N and at home by women

76

canning

-Robert Dyars
-allowed food trans without spoilage
-war allowed expansion to meet military demands for non-perishable food

77

train

-railroads
-Peter Cooper built "Tom Thumb" 1830
-helped settle west and transport goods

78

ben franklin

inventor, scientist, politician, and one of the founding fathers of the US

79

Plymouth colony

Separatist (puritans) also became known as pilgrims.
-Came over the mayflower to Massachusetts.

80

French settlement in the new world

The french founded Quebec. They sought profits from fur and began trading with the natives. They expanded to Louisiana and grew tobacco, sugar, and rice. Started importing slaves from Africa for field work.

81

Colonial slave labor

Africans sent over and sold to do work as farmers or servants

82

Native American and french relations

Began a brisk trade with natives

83

Anti federalist

Opponents of the constitution. Not totally opposed to federalism. Accepted need for national government. Were determined to protect the states rights and wanted a bill of rights

84

federalist papers

a collection of 85 essays written by james madison, alexander hamilton, and john jay who were in favor of federalism

85

republicanism

stresses liberty and unalienable rights. rejects aristocracy and inherited political party. expects citizens to be independent in their performance of civic duties

86

first bank of the united states

created because alexander hamilton wanted the federal government to accept responsibility for the states outstanding debts from the war

87

second great awakening

religious revival, but more emotional than fear of god like the first

88

missouri compromise

missouri could enter the union as a slave state while maine enters as a free state to keep the system equal. if any new states want to enter the union as a slave state they needed to be below the northern border of mississippi