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Flashcards in unit 5 Deck (83):

what were the causes for american imperialism

monroe doctrine, manifest destiny, anglo saxism, overabundance of goods, need for navy with bases, overseas markets, european competition


how did the US become a world power, advantages and disadvantages?

japan and the treaty of kanagawa, samoan islands, hawaii and queen lilokalani, advan: pearl harbor and navy base


how was american influence increased in latin america?

pan americanism, customs union, worked out disputes peacefully


causes of the spanish american war

cuban rebellion, protection of american investments, yellow journalism, explosion of the USS maine



desire for new markets, economic and politcal domination of a strong nation over weaker ones


why did european nations imperialize

competition, factories depended on raw materials from whole world, high tariffs against industrialized nations (reduced trade), monroe doctrine, all made companies look to overseas markets


monroe doctrine

warned european nations from colonizing north and south america



the imperial power allowed local rulers to stay in control and protect against rebellions and invasions


social darwinism

said only fittest survive, encouraged imperialism


anglo saxism

john fiskes ideas saying the US was destined to go overseas
-US had over abundance of goods, looked for markets to sell to
-similar to manifest destiny


3 events that led to building a modern navy

1. germany tried to take over samoa
2. mob attacked US sailors
3. US helped venezuela against great brit


navy & captain Alfred T. Mahan

americans became willing to risk war for interests overseas
-mahan wrote a book to promote start of navy


treaty of kanagawa

matthew c perry: forced to negotiate trade with japan with the treaty of kanagawa


annexing hawaii

-to help hawaiis economy, hawaii had to become a part of the US
-queen lilkalani disliked the US influence and tried to reinstate herself as queen
-president cleveland opposed imperialism and wanted to return the queen to power and trash annexation, but hawaiis leaders refused and waited until cleveland left office to become a part of the US


diplomacy in latin america-pan americanism, customs union

-Blaine encouraged trade with latin america
-pan americanism: idea that US and latin america would work together
-wanted to create a customs union: require all american nations to reduce tariffs and treat each other peacefully in trade, a system for american nations to work out disputes peacfully (hoped to turn latins away from euro products)
-LA rejected both ideas but agreed to organization of american states


japan and western technology

-japan easily defeated koreas (china empire) military easily and gained territory in Manchuria,
-russians became concerned of japans rising power and forced japan to return manchuria, and korea to lease manchuria to russia


sphere of influence

each lease became an area where a foreign nation controlled economic development--rr construction or mining


open door policy

pres mckinley and secreatary john hay suppored
-all countries would be allowed o trade with china and countries with leaseholds would not discirminate against other nations wanting to do business in their sphere of influence


the boxer rebellion

secret chinese societies organized to fight foreign control- the boxers
-wanted to destroy foreign devils and chinese christian converts
-they besieged foreign embassies, killed foreigners, took prisoners
-german ambassador to china was killed: 8 nations intervened to smash the rebellion
-hay persuaded other powers not to partition in china


mckinley vs william jennings bryan

mck: chose roos. as mate, focused on prosperity, won
jb: anti imperialist, attacked republicans, lost


roos dimplomacy

succeeded after mck. assassination
-favored increasing power on world stage
-anglo saxism
-open door policy
-won nobel peace prize for encouraging end of war bw japan and russia


the panama canal

"big stick" policy: US showed power through construction of canal through central america
-hay pauncefote treaty: gave US exclusive rght to build canal without great brit
-french colony sold previous digging site to US
-colubia refused US build
-panama opposed columbian rule and started uprising
-roos. ordered warships to the area
-us recognized panama's independence and the 2 nations signed a treaty allowing the canal to be built
-protestors in US and LA condemned roos. as unjustifiable agression


roosevelt corollary

-US concerned with size of LA's debts to european nations
-roos. modified monroe doctrine stating US would intervene in latin affairs to maintain economic and political stability in the western hemisphere
-purpose to prevent euro powers from using debt problems to justify intervening


dollar diplomacy

taft continued roos. policies
-if US supported LA development, everyone would benefit, increase trade, profits, LA would rise out of social disorder
-administrated loans to replace euro loans with US loans
-helped nicaragua by intervening


wilsons beleifs

-committed progressive
-opposed imperialism
-prosperity to promote democracy


mexican revolution

-porfirio Diaz: dictator, industrialized, left citizens poor and landless
-francesco madero led the revolution
-huertta siezed power and killed madero
-US declared any group that seized power in LA must set up a just government based on law to win US recognition


wilsons diplomacy in MX

-sent marines to overthrow huerta, greeted by anti-american riots
-pancho villa and group of guerillas burned columbus, nmx
-wilsons policy damaged US foreign relations


americans and european war

-american public favored allies: brits
-germans, irish, french favored central powers
-US stayed neutral for 2 yrs and prepared for war
-gov believed an allied support was the only way to preserve international balance of power
-business supported brit with 2 billion dollars in loans
-if allies won, $ would be paid back, if not, $ would be lost forever


womens movement

carrie chapman catt and jane addams-led womens suffrage
-founded womens peace party (international league of peace and freedom)
-league to limit armament
-worked to keep US out of war by urging the president not to build up the military


brit and propaganda

brit officials tried to win americans through propaganda: info designed to influence opinion
-brit cut transatlatic telegraph cable from europe to US which swayed american support bc they only saw messages about german atrocities


german vs brit water warfare

-brit declared blockade of german ports and intercepted neutral merchant ships, required german to go to brit ports to be inspected for contraband
-germany deployed subs to sink any ship they found in the waters around brit
-violated international treaty of promising to not attack civilian ships without warning
-US saw their acts as terrorism


road to war US vs germany and declaration of war

-wilson sent warning to ger to stop sub warfare or go to war
-they promised under certain conditions to stop
-a german, arthur zimmerman, told mexico if they agreed to ally with germany against the US germany would give them TX, NM, AZ
-brit intelligence intercepted the zimmerman telegram
-germany resumed unrestricted sub warfare, they believed US couldnt gather troops in time to stop them, sank US ships: Lusitania
-US declared war


the sussex pledge

-wilson kept out of war and soldiers home


wartime agencies

-war industries board: coordinate production of war materials
-food admin: increased food prodction and reduced civilian consumption
-fuel admin: managed use of coal and fuel


paying for the war: loans, bonds

-raised income taxes
-borrowed 20 billion through sale of liberty bonds and victory bonds


national war labor board

to prevent strikes from disrupting the war effort
-pressured indsutry to improve wages, 8 hr work day, allow unions to organize


women in war

-worked in factories, shipyards, rr, police, mail carriers, engineers
-when war ended they were fired and went back to traditional jobs


the great migration begins

henry ford sent agents to recruit blacks
-able to vote and affect policies
-mexicans head north bc of turmoil in mexico, provided labor at ranches, faced hostility and discrimination, worked in factories


committee of public information

wilson recruited advertisers, authors, advertisers, artists, song writers, speakers, motion picture companies to help sway pro war
-distributed flyers for speeches


espionage act of 1917

made illegal to aid the enemy, give false reports, interfere with war effort
-illegal to spy to aquire gov information


sedition act 1918

illegal to speak against war publicly


american protective league

people to spy on neighbors and coworkers
-led to attacks on germans, labor activists, socialsists, pacifists


selective service

required all men to register, came to draft board to be selected/exempted
-millions volunteered but died from influenza epidemic, killed 25% of americans


blacks in the war

served overseas as combat troops
-encountered discrimination and prejudice, racially segregated units


women in the war

only noncombat positions, radio operators, electricians, pharmicists, chemists, photographers
-army refused to enlist women
-hired women as temporary employees/nurses


trench warfare

troops began digging trenches to protect themselves
Battle of the Marne


new war technology

poison gas, gas masks, armored tank, aircraft, zeppelins


americans arrive

"doughboys":boosted allied forces, inexperienced men eager to fight
-admiral william sims proposed merchant ships travel in convoys/groups and small highly manueverable warships would protect and escort the convoys across the atlantic


russia leaves the war

czar nicholas 2 abdicated his throne, marked beginning of russian revolution
-political leadership became temporary government
-bolshevik party overthrew temporary government established a communist government
-led by vladmir lenin
-pulled russia out of war to focus on establishing state


americans enter war to help french

-brit and french wanted US to integrate into their armies under their command
-US refused and fought in units under US command
-exception: 93rd infantry-a black unit transferred to french


germanys last offense

launched at western front, strengthened by russia they pushed into allied lines
-US launched and blocked germans


battle of argonne forest

-german drive stalled
-most massive attack in US history
-germany began to retreat


the war ends

-a revolution engulfed austria hungary
-poland, hungary, czechoslovakia declared independence
-austro hungarian empire and ottoman empire surrendered to allies
-Germany became a republic


palace of versailles treaty conference

a treaty with germany
-negotiated treaty of saint germain: ending war with austria hungary
-the big 4 allies: wilson US, lloyd george BRIT, Clemenceau FRANCE, orlando ITALY
-russia was not invited, refused to recognize communism


the 14 points

Wilson's peace plan
-free trade, free seas, disarmament, adjustment of colonial claims, open diplomacy, right of national self determination, new borders, central powers evacuate every country they invaded, return nations conquered during war, create a league of nations


treaty of versailles

-agreed to most 14 points
-wanted to punish germany more
-GB refused to give up naval advantage with freedom of seas
-germany army reduced, blamed for war, demand 33 billion $ to repair
-4 empires dismantled: austria, czechoslovakia, estonia, finland, hungary, latvia, lithuania, poland, yugoslavia
-national self determination was not applied to germany
-poland given access to baltic sea
-didn't mention free seas, free trade, fair settlement of colonial claims
-ottoman empire divided
-league of nations: reduce armaments, submit all disputes that endangered peace, come to aid of any member


US reaction to treaty

-us rejected treaty
-wanted few adjustments-wilson denied
-wilson traveled and spoke to convince the people and still refused to amend treaty
-after wilson left office, us negotiated separate peace treaties with each central power
-league took shape without US


the wars 3 impacts on economy

-veterans returned in need of jobs, but factories were closing bc no more war supplies were needed
-inflation:people raced to buy war limited goods, stores raised prices, cost of living increased, factories laid off workers
-strikes: workers wanted higher wages because of inflation, unions grew strength and striked


after war racial unrest

blacks moved north to take the factory jobs during the war, so they were blamed for stealing jobs
-summer of 1919 race riots broke out
-the NAACP launched a new campaign against lynching


the red scare

-fear communism was conspiring to take over the US
-communists international: soviet establishment for coordinating communist parties in other countries
-concern about workers using strikes to spur a revolution
-postal service intercepted 30 bombs, union, socialists, communists, protested jailing of eugene debs
-bombs suggested nationwide conspiracy, damaged general palmers home


J. Edgar Hoover

established general intelligence division/FBI after palmer raids
-targeted foreign born
-held raids
-thousands of suspects deported
-unfair arrests, no warrants


How did the US and Cuba become closely linked economically

Cuba exported a lot of sugar to the US, and the US invested 50 million dollars into cubas plantations, mines, and railroads


Who led the feb 1895 rebellion in Cuba

Jose Marti


What caused most Americans to side with Cuban rebels against Spain

Based on the horrific stories they heard in the NY journal and the NY world.
They used yellow journalism exaggerating stories through articles explaining the torture and abuse Cubans were going through


Why did McKinley send the USS Maine to Cuba

Many Spanish loyalists became enraged in Havana Cuban with Spain's concessions with Cuba. McKinley feared that Americans may be attacked and the USS Maine was sent to evacuate them in case


How did Americans regard Spain at the time of the USS Maine explosion

Thought Spain was guilty of sabotage and the US took action and was ready to go into war if needed
-possible causes included combustion of coal, a mine, or sabotage


Who defeated spanish in the Philippines

Dewey's squadron defeated all 8 Spanish ships, seized Manila, with the help of Emilio aguinaldo, took control of the islands and defeated spanish in the Philippines


What were spanish forces effected by in Cuba

Tropical disease and months of fighting weakened the forces


Where did both sides of the war know where the war would ultimately be fought

At sea


Why was defeating the Spanish fleet important to the US

If they did Spain would not be able to supply its troops to Cuba and would be forced to surrender


How did most Americans die while in combat

Died In training camps because epidemics broke out killing more Americans than would be killed in The battle with the Spanish


Rough riders

A volunteer Calvary unit from the American west-cowboys, miners, law officers
-commanded by colonel Leonard wood and Theodore roosevelt


Pros and cons for annexing the phillippines

Military benefits, helping less civilized people, large market for goods
Cons: too costly, cheap Filipino labor would decrease america wages, violated american principles


Foraker act and Puerto Rico

Established a civil government for the island, elected legislature, elected executive council, not considered citizens until later


What did taft improve in them phillippines

Education,transportation, health care
-purpose to decrease Filipino hostility for US annexing them


Platt amendment

Said US would leave Cuba to their own control, they had to establish some sort of order, and US could intervene when necessary


Causes of WW1

-alliances: triple alliance, triple entente
-militarism: aggressive build up of armed forces, Germany build a modern navy and industrialized, Germany and France became enemies
-nationalism...imperialism: a country could increase their power and wealth by controlling other peoples, self determination
-assassination: archduke franz Ferdinand


Assassination of archduke franz Ferdinand background

-archduke of Austria Hungary
-killed on travel to Serbia, a Serbian nationalist killed him because Serbian did not want to be imperialized
-triggered all alliances
-Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia, Germany declares war of Russia and France, Britain declares war on Germany because Germans crossed Belgian land violently
-fought on eastern and western front


Triple alliance vs triple entente

TA: Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy
TE: Great Britain, France, Russia, US
Before the war


Central powers vs allies

Triple alliance became central powers
Triple entente became allies
CP: Germany, Austria Hungary, turkey, Bulgaria
A: Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Italy (moved to central powers), US, Serbia


hay pauncefote treaty

gave us exclusive right to build the canal without great britain
-a trench company sold previous digging panama site to us
-colombia refused us to build



-Chinese markets increased as America began to import their goods
-war erupted between china and japan over korea, china was defeated
-boxer rebellion: people staged protest against foreign rule in china
-open door policy: all countries would be allowed to trade with china



spain had agreed to the US annexation of