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Flashcards in unit 3 Deck (41):

the transcontinental RR

pacific railway act: construction of a trans RR by 2 corporations
-competition between the 2 companies as each raced to obtain as much land as they could


the central pacific, who? what?

The big Four: Leland Stanford, Charley Crocker, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington
-Stanford became governor of CA, senator, and founded Stanford University


The last spike who? what? effects?

-completed the RR in 4 years
-5/10/1689: spectators gathered at Promotory Summit, Utah, to watch the hammer of 5 gold and silver spikes to join Union Pacific RR and Central Pacific RR
-led to disappearance of many Natives
-wipes out the buffalos


What were RR effects

-spur growth in markets for productions, stimulated economy by spending $ on steel, coal, timber
-4 time zones were established
-invention of air brakes(allowed stops for longer and heavier trains)


The dakota sioux uprising? treaty?

-uprising in Minnesota
-Sioux agreed to live on a reservation in exchange for annuities (annual payments from gov), but annuities never reached them which resulted in poverty
-fort laramie treaty 1851: US said territory was the natives but then went back on word


Sand Creek Massacre

miners v Cheyenne and Arapajo
-waited to negotiate at Sand Creek
-because of indians hostility and destruction, the miners did not allow peace


red clouds war

-warriors wiped out a whole military unit (aka the frettermans massacre)
-army abandoned post along trail


battle of little big horn

-prospectors overran lakota sioux reservation in dakota territory to mine gold
-gov sent general Alfred H and Colonel George A Custer: launched an attack on Native American warriors
-all natives killed but 1
-army stepped up campaign against natives in plains


Tragedy at Wounded Knee

-Lakota continued to perform Ghost Dance (against gov law), that hoped for a day when settlers would disappear and buffalo would return
-chief Sitting Bull was killed by police
-Fled to wounded knee creek where shots were fired


citizenship act

all natives are citizens


The dawes Act 1877

said natives should assimilate (absorb into american society as landowners and citizens).
-The Carlisle indian school: taught indians house to behave like white men
-allotments were provided (divided reservations)
-allotted each head of a house 160 acres. The land that remained would be sold to settlers in which the $ went to natives. They had to stay for 25 years.


indian reorganization act

restored reservations lands, gave natives control over it, elected a tribal gov


boomtown to ghostowm

-when gold was gone people left boomtowns abandoned


hydraulic mining? problems? ole breaker mining? results?

high powered water to wash away hillsides
-caused floods, blocked rivers, contaminated water with quicksilver
-OB: breaks up huge boulders
-natives pushed aside, buffalos decline
-sluice box mining


cattle herding? inventions?

cowboy: herded cattle to RR terminals to be sent to cow towns
-RR made the cattle herding business prosper
-oversupply drew prices down so individuals created their own slaughterhouses
-barbed wire was invented


homestead act

-gave 160 acres to individuals that promised to stay and work the land for 5 years and pay a small fee.
-made many families travel West


industrialization? GNP? Natural resources? workforce?

-after the war many abandoned their farms and went to work at factories and mines
-the gross national product GNP: total value of all goods and services that a country produces
-natural resources: timber, coal, iron, copper (didnt need to rely on imports anymore). resources in West were taken to factories in East by RR
-petroleum: oil industry was built on: could be turned into kerosene for lanterns and stoves
-large workforce because population tripled: large families, flood of immigrants (chinese and european)


Alexander Graham Bell

invented the telephone


Edison and Westinghouse

-Thomas Edison: invented phonograph, lightbulb, battery, motion picture. started supplying electricity to NYC
-George Westinghouse: invented air brake system for RR. lit city with Niagara falls power to generate electricity



"let people do as they choose" , believed gov should not interfere with economy other than protect property rights and maintain peace. relies on supply and demand to regulate wages and prices. supports low taxes and limited gov debt. entrepreneurs: people who risk their capital to organize and run businesses


big business? corporations? stock? pools?

corp: orgs owned by many people, acknowledged by law as if owned by 1 individual
stock: shares of ownership
pools: agreements to keep prices at a certain level-not succesfful


robber barons

the great wealth many aquired let to accustations that they had cheated tax payers, bribed officials, and cheated on their contracts and debts
-some members began bribing members of congress for more land


most famous robber baron in RR industry

Jay Gould: famous for manipulating stock as a corrupt RR owner


the great Northern RR

built and operation by James J Hill
-built without any federal grants


andrew carnegie and steel? vertical integration?

-became pres of Penn. RR
-bought shares in iron mills and factories and rr bridges
-began vertical integration: owns all of the different businesses on which it depends on its operation


rockefeller and standard oil? horizontal integration? monopoly?

-horizontal integration: combining firms in the same business into 1 large corp
-built oil refineries
-controlled about 90% of oil industry in US
-monopoly: when a single company achieves control of an entire market


new business organizations? trusts? holding companies?

-many states made it illegal for 1 company to own stock in another company
-trusts: new way of business that did not violate such laws, a legal arrangement that allows one person to manage anothers property (trustee)
-holding co: does not produce anything itself, but owns the stock of companies that do, so they can merge their companies


JP Morgan and investment banking

-most successful
-specialized in helping companies issue stock
-founded the US steel co


unions? techniques to stop?

-united all workers in a particular industry
-techniques to stop: required workers to take oaths to not join, detectives to ID union organizers, people who were in were fired and placed on blacklist
-used lockouts: lock workers out of property and refused to pay them


Karl Marx

-developed Marxism
-argued that the class system was shaping a capitalist society
-believed workers would eventually revolt and overthrow the government
-claimed that after the revolution gov would seize all property and create a socialist party where wealth was evenly divided, leaving a communist society


how immigrants were treated



the great RR strike

panic of 1873 was a sever recession that forced many companies to cut wages


the haymarket riot

-supporters for 8 hr work day
-violent strike
-7 german immigrants were convicted-led to idea that unions were leaded by dangerous radicals


the homestead strike

henry clay frick proposed to cut wages and locked employees out


the pullman strike? injunction?

RR employees organized the american railway union
-among them were ones that worked for Pullman Palace Car Co, a company that required worker to live there, buy his goods, then laid people off and cut wages
-strike tied up RR and threatened to paralyze economy
-injunction: formal court order directing the union to halt the boycott


The american federation of labor?

dominant union of the late 1880s
-samuel gompers: first president focused on everything but politics, preferred to negotiate
-3 goals: convince companies to recognize unions, agree to collective bargaining, 8 hr work day
-mostly white men, no women or blacks


great migration

the great movement of blacks from the south to the midwest


jim crow laws

set of laws passed in the south which enforced discrimination



didnt have to pay rent for their land in cash but instead paid a share of the crops to cover their rent, seed, fertilizer, tools, and animals.
-merchants provided suplies on credit but it often led to debts which led to imprisonment or involuntary servitude


civil rights act of 1866

-granted citizenship to anyone in the US except natives.
-guaranteed rights for blacks to own property and they would be treated equal in court
-gave fed power to sue those who violated the rights
-passed 14th amendment


black voting restrictions

the 15th amendment prohibits states from denying anyone to vote based on race color etc
-southern states began imposing restrictions
-poll tax
-literacy tests
-grandfather clause