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new v old immigration

new: bw 1865-1914, 25 million europeans immigrated form italy, greece, austria-hungary, russia and serbia, germany (largest)(SE europeans). Mostly men. immigrated bc america had jobs, to escape poverty, social class restrictions, avoid forced military service, high food prices, religious persecution, population
pressure, and moving was easy
old: N,W europe--England. english, scotch, irish, dutch, german, swedish, african. to come to freedom, escape political turmoil, religious freedom, economy. faced nativism when coming to america. constructed RR, farming techniques, education traditions

1

ellis island

tiny island in NY harbor, goes through medical exam

2

tenements

apartment buildings with many living in 1 room

3

angel island

chinese immigration: country suffering from severe unemployment, poverty, and famine. demand for RR workers, led to immigration--they became servants, skilled traders, and merchants.
japanese: economic problems

4

nativism

extreme dislike of immigrants by native born people
surfaced during irish immigrations-feelings against jews, europeans
feared CATHOLICS would swamp mostly protestant US
labor unions opposed bc they undermined american workers bc of low wages and being strikebreakers

5

anti immigrant associations

american protective association-henry bowers, anticatholic
-irish suffered most: they were illiterate miners, dockhands, ditch diggers, factory workers, cooks, servants, and mill workers

6

chinese exclusion act

banned chinese immigrants for 10 years and prevented the chinese already in the US from becoming citizens, not repealed until 1943

7

asian segregation

SF board of edu. decalred all chinese, japanese, and korean children attend "oriental school"
-caused an international incident-japan took great offense
-T. Roos. proposed to limit japanese immigrants if schools wouldnt segregate, called "gentlemans agreement"

8

the literacy debate

admitting immigration into US w literacy test, in any language
-taft and wilson vetoed
-passed 1917
-purpose to reduce immigration from SE european nations

9

urbanization

-population grew form 10 mil-30 mil
-immigrants worked long hours in factories
-offered running water, lights, entertainment, plumbing
-buildings: skyscrapers: Louis Sullivan
-transportation: horse car, cable cars, trolley, RR, subways(boston and NY)

10

urban problems

crime, pollution, sewage, poverty, disease

11

machine politics

the political machine: informal political group designed to gain and keep power
-cities had grown much faster than their governments
-provided: jobs, housing, food, heat, police in exchange for votes
-run by party bosses

12

graft and fraud

graft: getting money through dishonest or questionable means
-george plunkitt: one of NYC most powerful pb's, defended "honest graft"
-accepted bribes from contractors, sold permits to friends to access public utilities
-gave jobs in exchange for votes

13

Tammany Hall

-NYC democratic politcal machine
-William "Boss" Tweed: leader, most notorious, arrested, prison
-city machines often controlled all city services including police

14

pro con to political machines

pro: provided necessary services, helped city dwellers assimilate
con: corrupt

15

social darwinism

new inventions, expanded cities, masses of workers, skyscrapers
-Mark Twain and Charles Warner called it the Gilded Age
-reinforced darwins ideas of individualism
-Herbert Spencer: british philosopher, used darwins ideas of evolution and natural selection, argued survival of fittest, paralled laissez-faire. wrote origen of species by means of natural selection
-individualism: no matter how humble their origen, anyone could rise in society

16

darwinism and the church

rejected darwin bc it contradicted bibles account of creation

17

Andrew Carnegies Gospel of Wealth

-said wealthy americans should engage in philanthrophy to use their money for better conditions for poor
-schools, hospitals, public libraries

18

pop culture

industrialization improved living: entertainment, recreation
-the saloon: social gathering, drinks, toilets, water for the horses, newspapers, political center, politcal machines
-amusemnt parks: Ny Coney Island, pro basketball, tennis, golf, etc.
-vaudeville: animal acts, acrobats, dancers
-ragtime: african music, saloon pianists, banjo players. Scott joplin "The Maple leaf rag" aka "king of ragtime"

19

civil service reform

-believed the spoils system was corrupt (jackson started)
-rutherford b hayes tried to end patronage by firing officials who had been given jobs by spoils.
-divided the rep party into 2: stalwards (supported patronage) halfbreeds (opposed)
-garfield (halfbreed) arthur (stalwart) VP, elected

20

pendleton act

required some jobs be filled by competitive written exams: professional civil service

21

election of 1884

cleveland elected-supported civil service, but he choose a middle course not of jobs and civil service

22

interstate commerce act ICC

-converned w power of large corps
-laws regulating RR rates
-said states could not regulate RR rates for traffic bw states, only fed gov could regulate interstate commerce
-created interstate commerce commission: limited RR rates, forbade rebates to high volume users, illegal to charger higher rates for short hauls
-not very effective- relied on courts to enforce its ruling

23

the mckinley tariff

-reps controlled both houses and White House
-mckinley passed tariff that cut tobacco taxes and tariff rates on raw sugar, but greatly increased rates on other goods

24

sherman antitrust act

-reponse to power of large business trusts
-prohibited any combo. conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce among states
-vaguely worded, poorly enforced, weakened by judicial interpretation.
-didnt apply to manufacturing bc it wasnt interstate commerce
-businesses still formed combos and trusts at a great rate

25

the social gospel

-to better conditions in cities according to biblical ideas of charity and justice
-washington gladden, a minister, wrote "applied Christianity"
-Walter Rauschenbusch, the leading voice

26

settlement house movement

-offshoot of social gospel
-established community houses and offered medical care, english classes, recreational programs
-Jane Adams: opened hull house in chicago 1889, inspired Lillian Wald who opened Henry St. Settlement in NYC

27

taking away the vote of blacks

states began imposing restrictions (not including race) to keep blacks from voting (15th amendment)
-poll tax 2$, more than blacks could afford
-literacy test (were unable to attend school)
-these tests/polls were not required of whites with the "grandfather clause", allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor who could vote in 1867

28

segregation

"separation of the races"
Jim Crow Laws: passed laws that enforces discrimination

29

plessy v ferguson

-arrested for riding in a "whites only" car
-tried "separate but equal" facilities, but there were never equal

30

ida b wells

fought against lynchings (hangings without proper court precedings)
-launched a fearless crusade, wrote a book about denouncing mob violence, congress rejected anti-lynching bill

31

Mary church terrell

-battle against lynchings, racism, sexism
-helped found national assoc. of colored women, national assoc, for advancement of colored people, women wage earners assoc. (assisted nurses)
-led boycott against department stores that refused to serve blacks

32

Booker t washington

-proposed blacks should work on economic goals, not politcal
-speech of atlanta compromise
-rejected by Du Bois

33

W E B Du Bois

leader of new generation black activists
-wrote "the souls of black folk" saw no advantage in giving up civil rights

34

progressives

against laissez faire economics (gov stays out)
-said industrialization and urbanization caused problems (poverty, pollution, crime, environmental concerns)
-said gov should take more active role in fixing problems
-strong faith in science and technology

35

muckrakers

-progressive journalists
-exposed unfair practices of large corps, beef industry, oil cos, social problems
-wanted reform
-Jacob Riis took pictures of poverty and wrote "How the other half lives"

36

lincoln steffens

a muckraker
-wrote about vote stealing in "the shame of the cities"
-series of articles, unmasked corruption of political machines

37

Frederick Taylor

-a muckraker
-wrote about managing time in "Principles of scientific management"

38

democratic reforms

La Follettes lab of democracy
-republican governor robert m la follette
-pressured state legislation to pass laws or direct primary: all party members could vote for a candidate to run in general election instead of a party boss
-pushed 3 additional reforms: initiative (permitted group of citizens to introduce legislation and required legislation to vote on it) 2: referendum: allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws directly without going to legislation. 3: recall: provided voters option to demand a special election to remove an elected official from office before his/her term had expired

39

17th amendment

-created a direct election: intended to end corruption and influence of money and party bosses
-1913 ratified

40

suffrage

the right to vote for women
-abolishing slavery took priority
-14th and 15th amendment only granted citizenship and right to vote for black men

41

National womens suffrage assoc.

-NYC based
-founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and susan b anthony
-wanted to pass constitutional amendment

42

NAWSA

-2 groups united to form
-as progressive movement gained, middle class women needed to vote to promote reforms they favored like labor laws

43

alice paul

-quaker social worker who headed NAWSA
-wanted to confront wilson, but the members became alarmed so she left and formed the National womens party
-NWP: blocked sidewalks, picketed, hunger strikes

44

Carrie Chapman Catt

became NAWSA leader in 1915

45

19th amendment

1918 house of rep passed womens suffrage amendment: failed by 2 votes in senate
-Catt used NAWSA power to defeat 2 anti suffrage senators
-8.26.1920: 19th amendment passed granting women right to vote

46

prohibition movement

temperance: womens christian temperance union WCTU
-anti saloon league
-laws banning manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol

47

Theodore Roosevelt

-became pres after William Mckinley assassinated
-broadened powers of pres.
-sent drafts of bills to congress
-square deal/new nationalism: strong gov. to support economic and social order, big business is inevitable so the solution is gov. regulation, supported programs like social welfare, workers compensation, child labor

48

trust busting

-wanted to make sure trusts did not abuse their power
-target JP Morgan RR holding co, northern securities
-feared monopoly by farmers & business owners bc it would raise rates and hurt profits
-ruled they had violated sherman antitrust act
-the most powerful men in the country were held accountable before the law

49

coal strike

the united mine workers launched a strike by hard coal miners of E penn.
-demanded increased pay, reduced hours, union recognition
-coal prices began to rise
-if the strike dragged on too long, the country would face a coal shortage that could shut down factories
-urged untion owners to accept arbitration: a settlement negotiated by an outside party
-mine owners refused
-TR threatened army run mines and they agreed

50

hepburn act

intended to strengthen ICC by giving it power to set RR rates
-set rates and regulations that limited competition and prevented new competitors from entering industry
-set rates to insure profit

51

consumer protection

-The Jungle by Upton Sinclair: appalling conditions of meat industry. Led to Meat inspection act, required federal inspection of meat sold through interstate commerce and required Agriculture dpt to set standards of cleanliness in meat plants
-Pure food and drug: meds were not properly labeled and were often faux meds. Pure food and drug act prohibited manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drugs

52

conservation

-managing the nations resources
-Newlands reclamation act: authorized use of fed funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, transformed west landscape and economy on large scale
-national forests, parks, reserves, funds

53

payne aldrich tariff

-taft believed high tariff limited competition, hurt consumers, and protected trusts
-tariff debate divided progressives
-in the end taft signed the PAD, cut tariffs hardly and increased some
-angered many

54

wilsons new freedom

-criticized FDR new nationalism (protect women and children, workers comp)
-wanted to destroy monopolies, not regulate them
-freedom was more important than efficiency

55

federal reserve system

wilson
-banks would keep a portion of their deposits in a regional reserve bank to provide a financial cushion against unanticipated losses
-board of 12 regional banks set interest rates and money in nation

56

income tax

tarrif reduction bill from wilson
-underwood tariff: reduced tariffs on gods
-levying an income tax, direct tax on the earnings of individuals
-came with ratification of the 16th amendment

57

clayton antitrust act

wilson and congress created federal trade commission to investigate unfair trade practices.
-progressives combatted with clayton antitrust act: outlawed certain practices that restricted competition. forbade agreements about selling competitor products, price discrimination, farm and labor orgs were no longer illegal combinations.
-corrected deficiencies in sherman antitrust act
-did not apply to labor or agricultural orgs
-gave unions right to exist
-called the "Magna Carta"

58

limits of progressivism

-failure to address racial and religious discrimination
-launched Niagara Movement which led to founding of NAACP
-believed that voting rights were essential to end lynching and racial discrimination
-Jewish people feared mob violence
-Anti Defamation League: to combat stereotypes and discrimination. removal of negative portrayals of jews in movies, print, stage
BLACKS BENEFITTED LEAST

59

immigrants

lived in cities

60

mugwumps

republicans who supported reform with the government, wanted jobs based on merit

61

taft

reelection divided rep party
-division allowed for wilson to win bc of fighting Teddy and Taft

62

16th amendment

power to tax individual people on income

63

underwood tariff

income tax and 16th amendment

64

keating owen child labor act

declared child labor unconstitutional, left it up to states
-under 14

65

lochner v New York, muller v oregon

Supreme Court addressed gov authority to regulate business to protect workers.
LNY: court ruled that NY law forbidding bakers to work more than 10 hr day
MO: limit hours, healthy mothers were the states concern.

73

The Great Railroad Strike

Balt. and Ohio Railroad companies cut wages because of recession. 80,000 railroad workers destroyed equipment, blocked railways, ruin tracks in major cities (NY, Balt, Pitts, St. Louis, Chicago) Prez Hayes issued federal troops to resolve

74

The Homestead Strike

Employees at steel mill, wages cut 20%. workers refused to work and caused issues, military ended strike.

75

Populism

A movement to increase farmers' political power and to work for legislation in their interest. farmers were in the midst of an economic crisis.

76

Square Deal

Roosevelt's reform that he then declared "I shall see to it... that every man has a square deal."