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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (86):

electoral college

the number of electoral votes per state determined according to the results of the most recent census
-if no candidate receives more than half of the votes the HOR chooses


Election of 1824 JQA and Clay & Jackson

John Quincy Adams: lost votes but Henry Clay dropped out of the election and his votes went to Adams so he won


Andrew Jackson 1828

"The Common Man"
-called election against Adams a "corrupt bargain"
-Jacksonian party created
-kitchen cabinet
-spoils system



trashing opposing parties


spoils system

giving a job to someone that supports you


Tariff of Abominations 1828

increasing tax on imported manufactured goods
-supported by N
-opposed by S
Result: S paid more taxes then N


nullification crisis

SC protested Tariff and said states could nullify any unfair law
-threatened to secede from Union


Jacksonian Indian Policy

supported removal of all indian tribes W of MS river
-Indian removal act
-trail of tears


Indian removal act 1830

Federal enforcement of moving indians to 1 location


Trail of Tears

Pres. Van Buren enforced march under US army escort, thousands of Cherokees to the W
-25% of women and children died


War on the Bank

-Jackson opposed bank (resented power of wealthy stockholders)
-Clay and Webster pushed a bill to re-charter the bank



-opposed Jackson, Northerners, were evangelical, British, wanted to expand federal gov
-pro slavery South
-antislavery N



non british southerners, favored limited gov


Panic of 1837

economic growth slowed and national bank no longer existed
-heavy spending resulted in inflation, paper money became worthless
-Van Buren created dpt of treasury...Harrison tried to veto
-Gen. William Henry Harrison won presidency: died 1 mo. later (whig)
-VP John Tyler became pres. (Dem)


specie circular

Jackson called for a currency to be backed by gold and silver


The 2nd great awakening

-similar to 1st--revival or religion
-Different because 1st had threat of hell, and the 2nd was more emotional, and encouraged faith not fear
-revival of methodists, baptists, Presbyterians


Benevolent societies

-spread word of god
-popular with women


women groups & alcohol

-argued alcohol caused evil
-temperance: moderation of alcohol
-formed American Temperance Movement


social reform & prisons & education

-rehabilitate prisoners
-gov funded schools
-supported by taxes


womens movement

Lucrietta Mott, Elizabeth cady stanton
-organized seneca falls Convention
-issued declaration of sentiments and resolutions/seneca falls declaration


abolitionist movement

-immediate end to slavery
-polarized the nation and brought the civil war
-american colonization society 1816
-william lloyd garrison
-frederick douglas
-sojourner truth
-N opposition
-S reaction


william lloyd garrison

-tried stopping slave traders
-hid slaves
-wrote the newspaper "liberation"
-founded NE antislavery society
-American antislavery society


frederick douglas

-escaped slavery in MA
-published antislavery newspaper "North Star"


sojourner truth

-gained freedom from NY
-eloquent and religious speeches
-testified in ct


N Opposition to slavery

-some objected to abolition bc they feared war bw N and S or blacks coming to N and overwhelming labor and housing markets
-didnt want to see S economy crumble
-cotton would cease, National Bank would not be paid by S


S reaction to slavery

-said slaves enjoyed working and their slaveholders
-slaves were vital


slave codes

laws meant to keep slaves from rebelling (in response to Nat Turner)
-couldnt gather in groups >3, couldnt leave wout pass, couldnt own guns, illegal to learn to read/write, couldnt testify in ct


harriet tubman

-served as union spy during civil war
-helped slaves escape
$40,000 bounty for her


the underground RR

-took slaves out
-stopped at stations to rest
-Levi Coffin: allowed slaves to stay at his house


Elections of 1844

-James Polk: manifest destiny, won election


manifest destiny

idea the nation was meant to spread to the pacific--james pol wanted OR and TX


Mexican War

US declared war on MX after annexing TX
-N opposed war
-waited for MX to fire first shot to declare war (for senate and HOR to favor)
-treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo
-MX refused to surrender, Polk sent W. Scott to size MX capital


treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo

MX recognized TX border
-US paid MX 15mil for CA, NV, UT, AZ, NM, CO, WY


gadsden purchase

-the US bought SNM & AZ for $10mil


CA and MX war

-6/14/1846 declared CA ind. and declared Bear Flag Republic


effects of MX war

-slavery cant exist in any states gained from MX
-outraged S


popular sovereignty

-removed slavery issue from national politics
-settlers can decide for themselves on slavery
-abolitionists angered it still denied blacks freedom


Gold rush 1849

-james marshall found gold in sac
-CA applies to enter union as free


compromise of 1850

-Henry clay proposed
-CA free
-MX no restictions on slavery
-congress cant interfere w slave trade and pass bill to recover black runaways
-taylor opposed (but died) VP fillmore supported and became president


fugitive slave act

-a slaveholder could take slaves into custody and the slaves couldnt testify
-marshalls and citizens could assist slave catchers


Kansas Nebraska act 1854

-NE territory states could use pop sov in slavery (failed)
-divide region-NE free while KS slave
-getting rid of Missouri compl.
-Franklin pierce as pres


"Bleeding Kansas"

-herds of N went to KS to create antislave majority
-"border ruffians" from MO illegally crossed border to elect pro slave legislation
-antislavery settlers drafted constitution
-kansas had 2 governments
-became scene or territorial civil war


Republican Party

N whigs, Free soilers, democrats to form
(democrat party that exists today)
-goal to stop S from controlling gov
-agreed slavery be kept out of territories


dredd scott v stanford

MO slave argued that during his trip to the N he was free and he then sued to end his slavery
-judge said blacks were not citizens & couldnt sue
-scott remains slave, congress cannot ban slavery, MO compromise is unconstitutional
-"bleeding KS intensified, Buchanan urged territory to apply for statehood



legalized slavery in territory KS


John Browns raid

an abolitionist who opposed slavery with violence
-abducted and murdered 5 pro slavery
-decided to size fed arsenal
-surrendered and was sentenced to death
-Harpers Ferry


1860 election

-lincoln won
-against douglass, breckenridge, bell


secession w lincoln

-lincoln would not interfere w slavery in S
-supported fugitive slave law
-SC succeeds



-jefferson davis assumed president of the confederation


fort sumpter

1st battle of the civil war
-fort in the S controlled by the fed gov
-davis ordered fort be evacuated & S refused
-shots were fired & fed gov surrendered wout any casualties


N advantages

-larger pop
-industrial and economic resources & trans
-soldiers had proper supplies
-treasury w bonds, income tax, paper money



-bloodiest single day of fighting in american history
-Success from N stopped S from threatening N industry
-kept Brit and French from entering war
-Gave lincoln ability to abolish slavery


emancipation proclamation

-Rep congress decided to prohibit slavery in the territories and district of columbia
-emancipated the slaves and provided compensation
-Confiscation Act: ordered seizure of land from disloyal S
-emancipated slaves in rebelling states


Reaction to emancipation proclamation

-S outraged, S slaves rejoiced



-began because of lack of shoes
-confed heard there was shoe depository in PA
-encountered Union troops
-John Buford, Union, surrounded PA on the hills surrounding the large field and waited for the confed to arrive


turning point of war

-union pushed back by lees troops
-union almost lost again when they mistakenly abandoned little round top
-the artillery was able to defeat the rebels (confed)



-one of the last holdouts that the N needed to secure MS river
-Grant failed on attack
-Grant cut off confed supply & confed surrendered


Gettysburg Address

dedicated cemetery for the casualties
-gave the people of america a new look at the country as a US


dissent problems

-Lincoln suspended habeas corpus
-confed sympathizers were arrested and held w out trial
-Copperheads: N Dems who advocated peace w S were arrested
-Jefferson Davis, suspended habeas corpus when N sympathizers burned a bridge


N & S women in war

N: sewing, nursing, became widows during war, new economic opportunity
S: lived as models of purity for men, managed plantations and worked in fields, made uniforms and munitions, taught school


Changes in s

Support for war began to wear down
S decided to join union army
Called for peace movements


Grants promotion

Bc of success at Vicksburg he was promoted to head of union army
Called a "butcher" because he lost so many men in his battles
Wanted to defeat lee: focused on VI
Appointed Sherman as commander of military of MS: focused on GA


Election of 1864

Lincoln faced N copperheads who wanted armistice
-faced radical reps who wanted strict rules for S to return to union
-picked up Andrew Jackson (dem) as his running mate
-entered the election as a member of the national union party
-Lincoln won


The surrender and end of the war

S set fire to Richmond in order to distract union forces
-at Appomattox, VI, 4/9/1865 grant met leet so sign a treaty to end the war
-grant sent the S troops home and the war officially ended


Crittendens compromise

Senator KY
Guaranteed slavery where it already existed, reinstate MI compromise and extend to CA border, slavery not allowed in territories N of line


Sherman's march to the sea

In charge of W
Set fires in GA and headed to SC



Rebuilding the nation after war



Pars to all S who took an oath of loyalty to the US and accepted union slavery rules
-10% of white males have to agree


Radical republicans

Led by Thaddeus Stevens and sumner
-prevented leaders of confed from returning to power
-guarantee blacks right to vote in S


Wade Davis bill

Required majority of adult white miles, formerly confed, to take an oath to union
-each states constitution had to abolish slavery, reject all confed debts, deprive confed officials/military rulers right to vote or hold office
-Lincoln vetoed


Johnson takes office

-after Lincoln
-kept loyal to union


black codes

passed by S
-kept blacks in condition similar to slavery
-required annual labor contracts, involuntary servitude, hours, licenses for non agricultural jobs


radical reconstruction

house and senate create a joint committee to rebuild union


14th amendment

-overrides black codes
-civil rights act 1866: citizenship to all US born except natives, blacks could own property, treated equally in court, sued people who violated, no state could deprive life, liberty, and property
-johnson attacked the plan but lost, the radicals won and replaced his plan


johnsons impeachment

HOR voted to impeach him bc he violated the tenure act
-1 vote short of impeachment


15th amendment

-voting rights for all races secured


republican reforms

-elected by poor S farmers, blacks, N carpetbags
-repealed black codes, est hospitals and orphanages
-rebuilt roads, railways, bridges
-white S hated, lost land bc of high taxes


south resistance

KKK: by confed soldiers
-hooded white robed men
-terrorized blacks, white reps, carpetbaggers, black teachers, other rep supporters
-rep organized militia to fight back
-congress passed enforcement acts


panic of 1873

-set off depression for a decade
-economic crisis and bankruptcy


New S

-Henry Grady-editor of Atlanta Constitution
-called for strong industrial economy
-RR, iron, steel, tobacco, cotton mills
-blacks became tenant farmers


Spoils System

the practice of appointing people to government jobs based on party loyalty and support


Second Bank on the U.S.

Jackson disclaimed it. He resented the power of its wealthy stock holders.vetoed a bill that would extend the banks charter for another 20 years. He forced the bank to end when he withdrew the federal bank deposits.


Jackson Democrats

favored limited federal government.


Presidential Reconstruction (lincoln/johnson)

Lincoln offered a general amnesty to all southerners who took an oath to the U.S. and accepted the Unions proclamations on slavery.
Lincoln vetoed Wade-Davis Bill, it required the people chosen for the new state gov. conventions to take an oath saying that they had never fought against the Union and each had to abolish slavery, reject all debts, and deprive former Condf. leaders.
Lincoln killed, Johnson took over. He restricted the Civil Rights act and the 14th amendment
Rep. tried to impeach him


Congressional Reconstruction

Congress angered to see southerns elected dozens of former Conf. leaders to Congress. Republicans tried to pass the Wade-Davis Bill to stop the Conf. leaders being involved in gov.


13th amendment

abolished slavery but if punished for a crime could be sentenced to involuntary servitude