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Flashcards in unit 10 Deck (51):

johnsons the great society

-after JFK
-war on poverty: passed economic opp act: attacked inadequate public services, illiteray, and unemployment
-medicare: seniors, medicaid: poverty/welfare
-elementary and secondary edu act
-project head start: pre k
-dpt of housing and urban dev: trans, healthcare, housing
-immigration act: elim preference to northern europeans



roose. died
-continue roos. new deal
-fair deal: little success
-whistle stop campaign: tours by train to make speeches across the country
-his popularity was low bc of dropping atomic bomb
-attacked do notinh congress


the fair deal

-min wage rasied
-social security covered 3/4 ppl
-segregation ended in armed forces
-construction of low income housing
-blacks right to vote, lynching fed crime, abolish poll taxes
-GI BILL: gave vets right to free edu, to buy home, college, start business
-congress rejected
-pop declined bc of korean war



d day commander, won presidency
-promised to end war in korea


federal hwy act

built network of hwys linking the nation bc of suburbia: track homes


baby boom

growth after wwII
-factors: young couples that delayed marriage bc war began, GI benefits for home purchase, pop culture celebrate parenthood



tv, replaced radio shows
-election of 1960: first televised presidential debate jfk vs nixon


kennedys new fronteir

increase aid to edu, health insurance to elderly, dpt of urban affairs, unable to push through many new programs
-deficit spending, space exploration, created more jobs
-asked businesses to hold down prices, threatened to buy cheaper steel if not, strained relationships
-cut taxes to have buss more money to expand: congress vetoed
-increase min wage. redevelopment act and housing act
-expanding womens rights
-mental retardation facilites and mental health communities
-special olympics
-focus on cold war
-womens rights


great society legacy

-success limited bc progs grew so quickly, they were unmanageable
-expectations of life changing benefits left people angry
-criticized for intruding in peoples lives
-lack of funds
-survived: medicare, medicaid, dpt of trajs, housing, head start
-produced qs for how the gov can help poverty
-3 areas: cities:crumbling, countryside:pollution, education
-end poverty, racial injustice, edu children


nixon and southern strategy

promised to appt only conservatives to fed courts, to have southerner to sup ct, oppose court ordered busing, choose vp candiate acceptable to s
-slow desegregation, overturn civil rights policies
-targeted antiwar protestors


nixons the new federalism

reduce size of fed gov by dismantling fed progs and giving control to state and local govs
-revenue sharing: granted funds to state and local agencies (gave fed gov new power bc states depended on fed funds, so gov could impose conditions on states
-sought to close johnsons progs of great society
-increase power of exec branch: tried to work around congress, refused to release funds to progs he opposed and congress approved
-replaced welfare w family assistance plan: gave grant of $1600 which could be supplemented by outside earnings, ppl complained it was too low


watergate scandal

-men broke into watergate apt complex and nixon tried to voer up his involvement along w other illegal actions
-nixon began spying on opposition rallied and spreading rumors about his dem opponents
-ordered ppl to break in and steal sensitive campaign info and place wiretaps on the phones
-burglars were paid from a secret white house fund
-nixon refused to hand over his tapes pleading it was crucial to national security to not: executive privilege
-gerald ford became VP bc nixons VP was found caught taking bribes from sate contractors


nixon resigns

-house judiciary committee voted nixons impeachment for obstructing justice, misusing fed agencies to violate rights of citizens, defying authority
-he resigned in disgrace.
-gerald ford took office and granted nixon "full, free, and absolute pardon"


impact of watergate

-new laws to limit power of exec branch
-fed campaign act amendments: limited campaign contributions and est an independent agency to administer stricter election laws
-ethics in gov act: required financial disclosure by high gov officials in all 3 gov branches
-FBI domestic security investigation guidelines acT: restricted bureaus political intelligence gathering activities
-left americans w distrust of public officials



tries to whip inflation WIN
-urged americans to reduce use of gas, energy
-cut gov spending, urged fed reserve to increase interest rates
-sought to balance budget and keep taxes low



the organization of petroleum exporting: used oil as a political weapon
-war bw israel and arab neighbors, OPEC announced an embargo/trade ban on oil to countries that supported israel
-as $ increased, people had less $ for goods which contributed to the recession



us had a stagnant exon by of decline in manufacturing bc us imported more than it exported. unable to compete, factories closed and ppl lost jobs
-inflation bc johnson increased deficit spending for vietnam and great society without raising taxes
-combo of stagnant econ and inflation with rise of unemployment


nixons response to stagflation

focus on inflation by cutting spending, increasing taxes
-tried to reduce consumer spending by getting the fed reserve board to increase interest rates
-imposed a 90 day freeze on wages



-promise to restore honesty to gov
-progs for energy development
-tax reform
-welfare reform
-national health care
-increase gov spending and cutting taxes
-then delayed tax cuts and vetoed spending
-tried to reduce $ supply and interest
-believed problem was dependence on foreign oil



volunteers in service to america: a domestic peace corps



-philosophy of self reliance and independence
-dealing with communists and the union, he turned republican
-promise to cut taxes and increase defense spending, banning abortion
-reps gained control of senate
-told ppl they should not expect gov help
-believed gov should stay out of ppls lives



encouraged fed reserve to keep interest rates high, asked congress to pass a massive tac cut "trickle down economics"
-cut social programs
-cutting taxes and building up military were more important than balancing budget


federal communications commission

stopped regulating cable tv


united farm workers

led by cesar chaves, organized a national boycott of table grapes that made companies recognize the union, raise wages, and improve working conditions



-gov should regulate econ to protect ppl from power of large corporations and wealthy elites
-gov should play an active role in helping disadvantaged americans--tax burden on wealthy and social progs
-supporters of speech and privacy
-opposed gov supporting religion
-diverse society
-want to make everyone more equal w wealthy taxes



-distrust gov power
-branches meant to divide power--split state and fed gov to limit ability to intrude in peoples lives
-free enterprise is the best econ system
-oppose high taxes and gov progs that transfer wealth from rich to poor
-taxes and gov progs discouraged bc they take away incentive to work, reduce freedom in society
-fear of gov restrict econ freedom and ppl will no longer be able to improve standard of living
-religion important
-support police regulation
-laissez faire


media revolution

cable tv: changed broadcasting, networks appeared...BET, MTV, CNN, ESPN
music: rap music
technology: sony walkman, portable music, ipod, cd player, mp3, vcrs, dvds, video game, video arcades, sony, nintendo, microsoft


technological revolution

computer: ENIAC: worlds 1st digital computer, as big as a small house,
-integrated circuit: made circuits smaller and easy to manufacture
-region where products sprang up to make products: silicon valley
-microprocessors: made computers faster and smaller.
-steve jobs: set up to build a small personal computer for use
-bill gates: cofounded microsoft for PC software
-telecommute: email, do jobs from home on computer
-gov started deregulating telecommunications, telecommunications act: allowed phone cos to compete to send tv signals, allowed cable cos to offer phone service
-music players, cameras, radios, tvs, music, video recorders
-rise of global network: internet
-internet: physical network of computers connected together my phone, cable, or wifi
-world wide web: used links, web sites
-gross domestic product rose bc of the information check industry with computer and internet router manufacturers
-blogs as a public diary


taft hartley act

required union leaders to take oaths that they were not communists


"do nothing congress"

truman attacked roosevelts do nothing congress by passing the truman doctrine aid program, national security act, 22 amendment
-trumans accomplishments did not affect americans directly


dynamic conservatism

eisenhower's balancing economic conservatism with activism in areas that would benefit the country
-ended gov price and rent controls
-vetoed school construction bill and slash gov public housing
-abolished RFC
-federal hwy act


scientific advances

-transitor: made it possible to miniaturize radios made portable
-jet airline age
-cancer with radiation treatments and chemo
-antibiotics and blood tests reduced TB
-polio continued to strike, jonas salk developed a vaccine


mass media

tv: 80% of families had at least 1
-comedy, adventure, action, variety
hollywood: cinemascope: showed movies on large, panoramic screens, gave Hollywood something tv couldnt match
radio: music, news, weather, sports, talk shows


rock n roll

-stemmed from african american rhythm and blues
-elvis presley: king of rock n roll
-created generation gap bc of cultural separation b/w children and their parents


beat movement

-white writers and artists
-harshly criticized what they considered the sterility and conformity of american life, meaninglessness of politics, emptiness of pop culture


urban renewal

30 million ppl below poverty line
-poor: single mothers, elderly, minorities, blacks, inner city residents, native americans
-middle class moved to suburbs
-cities detioriated bc middle class moved out and took taxes w them
-urban renewal progs tried to eliminate poverty by tearing down slums and erecting new high rises for poor residents
-crowded, violent
-gov encouraged them to stay poor bc they would evict them as soon as they began earning higher income



salaries were 51% of what whites earned,didnt have decent medical care
-migrated north



50s, and 60s, Braceo Program brought 5 million mexi to US to work on farms and ranches in Southwest. braceros were temporary contact workers, terrible conditions


native americans

poorest ethnic group in US. after WW2, US gov launched program to bring NA nto mainstream society, whether they wanted to assimilate or not. termination policy (fed gov w/d ll recognition of the NA groups as legal entities and made them subject to the same laws as whites.



coal mining was the backbone of their economy, but mechanization of mining began and unemployment soared
-horrible schooling and health


juvenile delinquency

antisocial or criminal behavior
-saw a 45%rise in 1948-1953
-bishop j sheen complained that doting parents had raised bored children who sought thrills like alcohol, weed, and murder
-blamed pop culture, lack of discipline, rebelling


space programs

su launched sputnik and then sputnik II.
-felt nation had fallen behind
-lack of technical edu in nations schools
-efforts to improve math and science edu



-levittown: mass produced suburbs
-reasons for growth: escape crime and congestion of cities, better life, american dream, affordability w GI bill


1960 election

nixon vs kennedy
first televised


warren court

-reapportionment to redraw lines of cities based on pop
-due process: all ppl treated equally in law
-miranda rights
-right to lawyer without money
-prayer and privacy, separation of church and state


johnsons war on poverty

-passed economic opportunity act
-attacked public services, illiteracy, unemployment


election of 1968

johnson decides to not rerun
-eugene mccarthy, dem, nominated
-robert kennedy, dem
-richard nixon, rep
-george wallace, independent
-nixon wins bc of promises to end war and restore order at home


iran hostage crisis

-us supported iran's shah because of our oil dependence on them
-the shah grew unpopular and ayatollah khomeini came into reign and distrusted the US because of their support with the shah and revolutionaries stormed the US embassy and took 52 american hostages.
-carter unsuccessfully negotiated their release.
-rescue mission failed as helicopters malfunctioned
-presidents inability to free them cost him support in the 1980 election
-the day carter left office iran released the americans ending their 444 days in captivity


supply side economics

"trickle down economics"
-taxes low, businesses will grow, the economy will grow, americans will earn more money, gov collect more taxes at a lower rate
reagan practiced
-high taxes take too much money away from investors


iran-contra scandal

-reagans admin continued to illegally support the rebels in nicaragua
-secretly sold weapons to iran in exchange for the release of american hostages being held in the middle east
-hostages were taken by the hezbollah bc the US supported israels involvement in lebanons civil war & profits from sales were sent to the contras
-chief figure...marine colonel oliver north
-testified before congress and admitted to covering up their actions
-reagan had approved the sale of arms to iran, but the investigation concluded he had no direct knowledge of the diversion of the money to the contras
-tainted his second term in office


80s culture

-revolution in retail sales
-rock n roll