Unit 1.5 Structure and function of biological macromolecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1.5 Structure and function of biological macromolecules Deck (25)
1

large molecules, necessary for life, that re built from smaller organic molecules.

biological macromolecules

2

molecules that consist of thousands of atoms and have amass over 100,000 daltons

macromolecules

3

name the four classes of biological macro molecules

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

4

makes up the majority of a cell's mass

the four macromolecules combined

5

why are biological macromolecules organic

because they contain carbon

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a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds

a polymer

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individual subunits or building blocks that combine with each other using covalent bonds to form polymers

a monomer

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monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule

dehydration reaction

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monomers release water molecules as by products

dehydration reaction

10

means to put together while losing water

dehydration synthesis

11

HO - 1 - 2 - 3 - H HO - --- H
short polymer unlinked monomer

removes a water molecule form in a new bond ----H2O

dehydration reaction

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they hydrogen of one monomer combines with hydroxyl group of another monomer releasing a molecule of water

dehydration synthesis

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polymers can be assembled into monomer by a reverse of the reaction

hydrolysis

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because a water is used to bread the bonds the reverse action is called

hydrolysis

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polymers are broken into monomers in a process known as

hydrolysis

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during this reaction they polymer is broken into two components; one part gains a hydrogen atom H+ and the other gains a hydroxyl molecule (OH-) from a split water molecule

hydrolysis

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catalyzed, or sped up by specific enzymes

dehydration and hydrolysis reactions

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involves the formation of a new bond, requiring energy

dehydration reactions

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breaks bonds and releases energy

hydrolysis

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broken down by amylase, sucrase, lactase, or maltase

carbohydrates

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broken down by enzymes eosin and peptidase, and hydrochloric acid

proteins

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broken down by lipases

lipids

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when macromolecules are broken down what is provided

energy for cellular activities

24

provide energy to the body, particularly through glucose

carbohydrates

25

(CH2O)n

carbohydrates stoichiometic formula where n is the number of carbons in the molecule meaning the hydrogen to oxygen