Flashcards in Unit 2: Molecules of Life Deck (92):
individual units (“Building Blocks”).
Monomers are linked together by _______ bonds.
Organisms need polymers to stay intact so the strongest type of bond is used these bonds are called _______.
Macromolecules are formed by __________ or ______________ ________.
Dehydration or Condensation Reactions
Hydroxyl (OH) is removed from one molecule and Hydrogen (H) is removed from another This combination forms water. This orientation of molecules and making of a bond requires E.
Enzymes (most are proteins) help speed up the rate of the reaction.
Dehydration or Condensation Reactions
Does dehydration require energy?
What helps speed up the rate of dehydration?
Macromolecules are broken apart into individual monomers by _________ reaction.
This process releases E in the bond breakage.
The process needs water (hydroxyl and hydrogen) to fill the open bonds on the monomers.
Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction here too.
Do hydrolysis reactions require energy?
no, they give off energy
Hydrolysis needs ______ (hydroxyl and hydrogen) to fill the open bonds on the monomers.
refers to Carbon
refers to water.
Carbohydrates are mainly ________.
Are the monomers or “building blocks” of carbohydrates.
sacch means _______
two monosaccharides linked together.
di mean ______
Are the polymers in carbohydrates. They are many sugars linked together.
What is the chemical composition of carbohydrates?
The chemical composition is: Carbon = Oxygen; 2x as many hydrogen also present.
The names usually end with “ose”. Such as Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose.
These are primary E sources for cells.
E storage molecule in plants.
E storage molecule in animals.
Structural component of plant cell walls.
the most abundant organic compound on Earth.
This is the exoskeleton of some animals and also Fungi cell walls.
Examples of lipids (4)
fats, oils, waxes, and steroids.
Most lipids are ________ molecules. (hydrophobic or hydrophilic?)
Lipids are mainly composed of ___________.
Two main parts of lipids
Fatty Acid tails (The Hydrocarbon unit.)
3 Carbon Glycerol molecule (alcohol) to hold the whole molecule together.
What is the function of the 3 carbon glycerol molecule in lipids?
To hold the molecule together
Basic fats and oils
Triglycerols or Triglycerides
These fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen atoms. The molecule has no open bonds to put any more Hydrogen on. (These are solid at room temp.) (They usually are associated with animals.)These are the bad types of fat when it comes to our diet.
These fats are solid at room temperature
These fats usually are associated with animals.
These have double or triple bonds that “could be broken” to add more Hydrogen to the fatty acid. (These are liquids at room temp.) (They usually are from plants, such as vegetable oil, sunflower oil, or peanut oil.)
These fats are liquids at room temp. (2)
unsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats
These have numerous double or triple bonds in the fatty acid portion. (These are also liquids at room temp.) (They are also usually from plants.)
These fats are usually from plants (2)
Unsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats
These are oils turned solid by adding Hydrogen by breaking the double or triple bonds so in order to transform it into a saturated fat
Hydrogenated or Trans fats
These molecules replace a single fatty acid with a single Phosphate ion. (This part of the molecule is Hydrophilic. “philic” means “lover of” It loves water because the phosphate carries a negative charge. Remember water is polar. So the negative phosphate will be attracted to the positive hydrogen portion of water.) They still have 2 Fatty Acid tails. (These are the Hydrophobic portion of the molecule. They carry a neutral charge. Therefore are not attracted to water.)
Phospholipid Bi-layers (having 2 layers) are common for cell and organelle membranes.
These lipids are made by combining alcohols with unsaturated oils. Such as girls lipsticks which also have coloring added to make the different shades.
A steroid has ___ carbon rings with the top ring looking like a house
Cholesterol is also a ______ molecule, but it helps with cell membrane flexibility. All membranes need to have some cholesterol to remain flexible. Cholesterol in excess is bad for your health though.
Lipids are stored in ______ Tissue in animals. This can lead to obesity or even Atherosclerosis (Clogged Arteries).
_______ make up greater than 50% of an organisms dry weight (referred to as biomass).
The monomer “building blocks” of proteins
There are ____ different Amino Acids that can be involved in making proteins. Proteins and enzymes usually have hundreds of Amino acids in their structure.
Individual Amino Acids (monomers) are bonded together by a _______ bond.
When we put many amino acids together, we get a _________ or protein.
_________ and ________ are the “work horses” of a cell. They carry out numerous functions within cells.
Proteins and enzymes
Arrangement and Quantity of ______ ______ affect the structure and function of that protein or enzyme. (Structure = Function)
This refers to the sequence of bonded Amino Acids.
________ _______, in 1948, discovered the first protein Amino Acid sequence. It was for insulin.
______ ________ is really important; just look at the difference between Sickle-Cell Disease and normal red blood cells. Just changing the SIXTH amino acid in the primary sequence creates this horrible disease. The easy way to remember that it is the SIXTH amino acid that changed, remember the number of the devil 666. Bad number = bad disease.
Primary Sequence (1')
Hydrogen bonds between neighboring amino acids allow for overlapping and coiling to occur. These help fold up the protein into it’s unique shape. It allows for flexibility too.
(folding and coiling)
Secondary Structure (2')
A variety of bonds (covalent, ionic, hydrogen) between distant amino acids causes large folds in the protein. These help provide stability to the folded protein.
Tertiary Structure (3')
This is when two or more polypeptides are woven together.
Hemoglobin (Red Blood Cells have four proteins woven together to make it.)
Think “multiple woven together” for __________ structure.
Quaternary Structure (4')
The “unraveling” of a protein or enzyme causing it not to function
What are the three causes of denaturation?
ph changes, salt concentration changes, and temperature changes.
The most common bonds that have been affected during denaturation are the weak _______ bonds associated with secondary structure.
monomers of nucleic acids
Polymers of nucleic acids are called ____ or ____- It depends on the 5 Carbon sugar present in the monomer.
DNA or RNA
These are the source of genes and hereditary information primarily.
Enzymes end with -_____
Proteins end with -_____
acts as the acid; gives off H+
Carboxyl end (COOH)
can act as a base by accepting a third hydrogen
Amine end (NH2)
Central carbon that holds molecule together
Most important part as it gives the amino acid its distinctly different properties; all 20 amino acids have different
Coiling in the secondary structure is called
Overlapping in the secondary structure is called
Beta Pleated Sheets
Three components of nucleotides
1) a five carbon sugar (deoxyribose, ribose)
2) a phosphate group
3) a nitrogen base (ATGC)
This polymer is the “Master Million Dollar Blueprint”.
It is kept “safe” in the nucleus. (Nucleus is like a vault to keep the DNA in.) It is double stranded, has AGTC, it is long, and contains deoxyribose.
This polymer is like a “cheap 10 cent copy” of the DNA. It is disposable/recyclable. It makes messenger RNA and other RNA molecules. It is single stranded, short, contains ribose, and has AGCU.
Both _____ and _____ are chainlike and have 4 nitrogenous bases.
DNA and RNA
Big name small molecule. (These have 1 Carbon ring in the Nitrogen base.)
“Counting steps Takes you Up the Pyramid” is the easy way to remember them. (C, T, U)
Small name big molecule. (These have 2 Carbon rings in the Nitrogen base.)
“Alabama is Purely Greater than Auburn” or “Auburn is Purely Greater than Alabama” is an easy way to remember. It just depends on who you like more. (A, G)
Purines (A, G)
It is always a pyrimidine paired with a _____.
Example of Structure = Function theme and Emergent Properties theme
pyrimidines and purines
_______ ______ and _______ _____ make the model for the DNA double helix in 1953.
James Watson and Francis Crick
The two sides of the DNA double helix are said to be __________. (They fit together perfectly.)
One side has information to make proteins and enzymes (The Million Dollar Blueprint); other side is a protective cap for the Million Dollar Blueprint. It protects the sequence of nucleotides.
DNA double helix
Who "helped" James Watson and Francis Crick make the model for DNA.
The more Nucleotide sequence “genes” in common; the more _______ related the organisms are.
The fewer Nucleotide sequence “genes” in common: the more ________ related they are.