Unit 2: Molecules of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2: Molecules of Life Deck (92)
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1

means "large"

macro

2

means ‘many”

poly

3

means "part"

mer

4

individual units (“Building Blocks”).

monomers

5

Monomers are linked together by _______ bonds.

covalent

6

Organisms need polymers to stay intact so the strongest type of bond is used these bonds are called _______.

covalent

7

Macromolecules are formed by __________ or ______________ ________.

Dehydration or Condensation Reactions

8

Hydroxyl (OH) is removed from one molecule and Hydrogen (H) is removed from another This combination forms water. This orientation of molecules and making of a bond requires E.
Enzymes (most are proteins) help speed up the rate of the reaction.

Dehydration or Condensation Reactions

9

Does dehydration require energy?

yes

10

What helps speed up the rate of dehydration?

enzymes

11

Macromolecules are broken apart into individual monomers by _________ reaction.

Hydrolysis

12

means “split”

lysis

13

This process releases E in the bond breakage.
The process needs water (hydroxyl and hydrogen) to fill the open bonds on the monomers.
Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction here too.

Hydrolysis reaction

14

Do hydrolysis reactions require energy?

no, they give off energy

15

Hydrolysis needs ______ (hydroxyl and hydrogen) to fill the open bonds on the monomers.

water

16

refers to Carbon

Carbo

17

refers to water.

hydrate

18

Carbohydrates are mainly ________.

sugars

19

Are the monomers or “building blocks” of carbohydrates.

Monosaccharides

20

sacch means _______

sugar

21

two monosaccharides linked together.

Disaccharides

22

di mean ______

two

23

Are the polymers in carbohydrates. They are many sugars linked together.

Polysaccharides

24

What is the chemical composition of carbohydrates?

The chemical composition is: Carbon = Oxygen; 2x as many hydrogen also present.

25

The names usually end with “ose”. Such as Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose.

Carbohydrates (sugars)

26

These are primary E sources for cells.

carbohydrates

27

E storage molecule in plants.

starch

28

E storage molecule in animals.

Glycogen

29

Structural component of plant cell walls.

cellulose

30

the most abundant organic compound on Earth.

cellulose