Mini test 2 study guide part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mini test 2 study guide part 1 Deck (54):
1

Describe the structure of a fungus.

A fungus is composed of hyphae (tubular filaments). Hyphae are intertwined to form a mycelium. The mycelium extends below and above ground. They grow extremely fast to reduce competition.

2

What are hyphae?

tubular filaments

3

Hyphae are intertwined to form a __________.

mycelium

4

How are fungi similar to animals?

Fungi are heterotrophic by absorption using exoenzymes and animals are heterotrophic by ingestion. Fungi cell walls are composed of Chitin which is the same substance found in the exoskeletons of Arthropods as opposed to plant cell walls which are made of cellulose.

5

Fungi are heterotrophic by _________ using exoenzymes and animals are heterotrophic by ________

absorption, ingestion

6

Describe the relationships that some plants and fungi have.

Most fungi have a symbiotic relationship with plant roots which is referred to as mycorrhizae. The fungi help to increase the surface area for water uptake by the roots. The plant provides sugars for food.

7

fungus enters into the root cells of the plant.

Endomycorrhizae

8

fungus covers the surface of the roots of the plant.

Ectomycorrhizae

9

Why do fungi grow rapidly?

They grow quickly to reduce competition. They just need moisture to grow.

10

Describe how fungus decomposes and ingests.

Fungi decompose by absorption using exoenzymes.

11

sexual structure is the Chytrids. They produce flagellated spores called zoospores.

Chytridomycota

12

sexual structure is the Zygosporangium. Examples: Mycorrhizae, Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold), Penicillium (green bread mold)

Zygomycota

13

most are enzymes called arbuscular (a tree shaped connection with plant cells.)

Glomeromycetes

14

sexual structure is the ascus (means “sac”). Ascus are found on the large ascocarp mycelium. Spores are small and dust-like structures called Conidia. Examples: Lichens, plant pathogens, mycorrhizae, and yeast.

Ascomycota

15

sexual structure is the Basidium (means “club”). Basidium are found on the large Basidium mycelium. They are important decomposers. Examples: Mycorrhizae, food mushrooms, Fairy Rings, Death Cap, Toad Stool, and Puff balls

Basidiomycota

16

imperfect fungi because they have no know means of sexual reproduction.

Deuteromycota

17

imperfect fungi because they have no know means of sexual reproduction.

Deuteromycota

18

means a fungal infection

Mycosis

19

What is the treatment for a fungal infection called?

fungicide

20

Describe the importance of fungi.

They are important decomposers. They return vital nutrients back to the environment. Some are used as medicines and food.

21

wheat rust, corn smut, Dutch Elm Disease, and Chestnut Blight are examples of what?

fungus plant pathogens

22

ring worm, athletes foot, jock itch, yeast infections, and dandruff are examples of what?

fungus human pathogens

23

What are the four major groups of plants?

Bryophytes
Pteridophytes
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms

24

mosses, non-vascular, tend to be small and fairly simple

Bryophytes

25

Vascular, non-seed plants

Pteridophytes

26

Vascular, naked seed plants

Gymnosperms

27

Vascular, flowering plants

Angiosperms

28

What adaptations are seen among plants to help them survive on land? Describe how they help.

Waxy cuticle (covering) on the surface of the leaves to avoid dehydration.
They have vascular tissue that transports water and nutrients.
They have protective seeds that help the survival of the embryonic plant during harsh dry times and it increases dispersal so seeds can be moved into new territory away from competition.
Flowers and fruit develop. They help moving to new areas or reproducing by using animals.

29

What are some traits that plants have that can help show common ancestry?

Basic structure of roots below ground and shoots above ground.
Apical meristematic tissue at the tips of the root and shoots.
Produce a waxy cuticle on herbaceous parts (leaves).
Stomata on the leaves for gas exchange during photosynthesis.
Vascular tissue (not in Bryophytes) - Xylem and Phloem

30

carries water up the plant towards the leaves. These are dead, hollow cells. There are 2 types: tracheids (small) and vessel elements (large).

xylem

31

carries sugar water down to feed the plant or store in the roots. These are living cells. There are 2 types: sieve-tube members and companion cells.

Phloem

32

Identify the three major groups that fall under the phylum Bryophytes.

Hepatophyta (Liverworts)
Anthocerophyta (Hornworts)
Bryophyta (True mosses)

33

Describe the dominant generation type for Bryophytes

Gametophyte generation - are dominant due to the presence of water in the environment, posses leaf-like structures called microphylls (photosynthesis occurs here, there are no veins in them), they have root-like structures called rhizoids, the dependent sporophyte generation is on top of the dominant gametophyte

34

Describe the sporophyte generation type of Bryophytes and why it is important.

Foot - the support base for the sporophyte generation
Seta (Stalk) - for rising up away from the water for greater dispersal of spores
Capsule - the sporangium - contains the spore cells that under meiosis to become haploid
Calyptera - the removable protective cap on the capsule
Peristome - structure for discharging or shooting the spores outward away from the parent plant)

35

Are Bryophytes vascular or avascular? How do they move water and nutrients?

They are avascular and they move water and nutrients by diffusion and osmosis.

36

Plants moved further inland to drier environments. What adaptations did they attain as they got further from water?

Lignin - increased cell wall strength so the roots could burrow through the soil to find water
Pectin - reinforced the weight bearing of the cells so they could grow taller
Vascular tissues - evolve to move fluids
Real roots - evolve from rhizoids. This allows for absorbing and transporting water and nutrients.
Real leaves (megaphylls) - evolve from an increasing microphyll.
Reduced gametophyte generation and increased sporophyte generation.

37

most went extinct about 250 mybp when Pangaea formed causing swampy areas to dry up. These formed the first real forests (They decomposed to make crude oil or coal “fossil fuels”). Existing species are mostly tropical. Some are Epiphytes - air plants (They grow in the branches of trees.) Sporophylls (leaves) are rich in oil. (They were the first source of flash photography.)

Lycophytes

38

The 5 major pteridophyte phyla

Lycophytes
Pteridophytes
Psilophyteas
Sphenophytes
Ferns

39

3 types: Psilophyteas, Sphenophytes (horsetails or Equisetum), and ferns

Pteridophyta

40

characteristic y branching

Psilophyteas

41

characteristic jointed stems with whorls (rings) or megaphylls (leaves). Hollow stems move oxygen to the roots for cellular respiration. Silica embedded megaphylls have a sandpaper texture)

Sphenophytes

42

characteristic megaphylls called fronds. Develop from fiddleheads. Spores develop on the underside of the megaphylls in groups called sori. Produce a tiny heart-shaped gametophyte generation.

Ferns

43

the support base for the sporophyte generation

foot

44

for rising up away from the water for greater dispersal of spores

Seta (Stalk)

45

the sporangium - contains the spore cells that under meiosis to become haploid

capsule

46

the removable protective cap on the capsule

calyptera

47

structure for discharging or shooting the spores outward away from the parent plant)

Peristomes

48

root-like structures in bryophytes

rhizoids

49

leaf-like structures in bryophytes

microphylls

50

increased cell wall strength so the roots could burrow through the soil to find water

Lignin

51

reinforced the weight bearing of the cells so they could grow taller

Pectin

52

evolve to move fluids

vascular tissues

53

evolve from rhizoids. This allows for absorbing and transporting water and nutrients.

real roots

54

evolve from an increasing microphyll.

real leaves (megaphylls)