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Flashcards in Unit 6 Study Guide Deck (65):
1

Order of hierarchal nature of ecology

organismal, population, community, ecosystem, landscape, biosphere

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first level of the hierarchal structure for ecology, focuses on morphology (bodily structure), behavior, and distribution of organisms

organismal

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second level of the hierarchal structure for ecology, focuses on abundance within an area (same time and showing signs of reproduction)

population

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third level of the hierarchal structure for ecology, focuses on species interaction (predation, competition, symbiosis)

community

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fourth level of the hierarchal structure for ecology, focuses on biotic factors interacting with abiotic factors (E flow and cycling of nutrients)

ecosystem

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fifth level of the hierarchal structure for ecology, focuses on the arrangement of ecosystem in an area (mountainscapes and seascapes)

landscape

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sixth level of the hierarchal structure for ecology, focuses on global interactions between biotic and abiotic factors

biosphere

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model that says at the equator there is mostly water on a global perspective. Because of the heat, the water evaporates, rises, and begins to move towards the poles. As it does this, the water vapor cools and condenses into rain. The rain mainly falls before reaching the Tropics (Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn), which is why most of the rainforests are between the equator and the Tropics. Deserts are along Tropic lines because of this loss of most of the rain before reaching the Tropics. In deserts (because of the heat), water is evaporated and mixes with water vapor from the oceans to rise into the atmosphere. As it moves towards the poles, it condenses and rains or snows below the polar circles (causing a lot of vegetation in this area). Because all the moisture is gone by the time the wind reaches the poles, they are considered deserts because of the small amount of rain received.

Hadley Cell Model

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23.5 degrees latitude, North

Tropic of Cancer

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23.5 degrees latitude, South

Tropic of Capricorn

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0 degrees

equator

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90 degrees

Poles

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66.6 degrees

Arctic or Antarctic Circle

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this effect is created by mountains and cause deserts on the backside. As winds come off the water, they have a lot of moisture. When they run into mountains, the air is forced upward resulting in the moisture cooling and condensing. This results in a lot of rain on the front side and little to no rain on the backside creating a desert.

Rain Shadow Effect

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upper region of the ocean with light penetration

photic zone

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lower region of the ocean without light penetration

aphotic zone

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bottom of the ocean

benthic zone

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communities of bottom dwelling, detritus feeding organisms

Benthos

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deepest parts of the oceans (typically deep sea trenches)

Abyss

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very harsh environment because of tides crashing and receding and rich in biodiversity (because of light for photosynthesis)

Intertidal Zone

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rich in biodiversity (“Rainforests of the Oceans”), endangered and protected by laws, and found in warm water climates

Coral Reef

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type of lake that is nutrient poor, very deep, and very cold. Appear clear because of lack of phytoplankton and nutrients at surface. Very few plants and animals because nutrients are at bottom and thermocline is hard to occur.

Oligiotrophic

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type of lake that is nutrient rich, fairly shallow, and warm. Appear murky because of abundance of phytoplankton and dissolved nutrients in the water. Tend to have lots of plants and animals because of abundance of nutrients in reach.

eutrophic

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type of lake with in between conditions. Moderate plants and animals present; mostly around the edges.

mesotrophic

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Temperature gradients that occur within a body of water as it heats or cools.

Thermocline

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located in mountains, waters are cold, clear, fast, narrow, nutrient poor, high dissolved O2 affects animals and plants that live here so most of them are hight oxygen demanding organisms such as trout. (comparable to oligiotrophic conditions)

headwaters

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located in between mountains and coast, waters are warm, slow, wide, nutrient rich, and murky due to erosion, lower dissolved O2 affects animals so most of the animals are moderate oxygen demanding such as bass or catfish. (comparable to mesotrophic conditions)

midstream

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where freshwater meets salt water, very nutrient rich because of dissolved materials from upstream (water appears almost black), and very rich in biodiversity (comparable to eutrophic conditions)

estuaries

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lands possessing water and above water plants, there are two types swamps (have trees) and marshes (have reed grasses only), very rich in biodiversity, and help reduce flooding by holding rain waters or hurricane waters.

wetlands

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refers to where within boundaries are organisms located

dispersion

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grouping close together that results form a need for nutrients, mating, or employment

clumped

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even distribution that results from territoriality or favorable environment

uniform

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no apparent reason seen in the dispersion pattern

random

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Survivorship curve with many young, numerous middle, and few old. Environments favors young and is favorable. Organism is usually at top of food chain. Extensive parental care and E investment.
Ex. humans, elephants, whales, and other big mammals

Type I

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survivorship curve with constant decline. Environment is relatively favorable but organism is a food source for another organism. Parental care is modest.
Ex. squirrels, rabbits, seagulls, and other small animals and small birds

Type II

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survivorship curve with many young, few middle and old. Harsh environment because young die at an early age. They are a food source and are low on the food chain. Practically no parental investment and young are left to fend for themselves.
Ex. oysters, sea turtles, and frogs

Type III

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Ideal growth, involves r-selection species (r-rapid growth), density-independent (related to resources not number of organisms), produces a J curve graph, environment has unlimited resources, occurs mainly in a new environment and pioneers species (first organisms to colonize and environment), and intrinsic growth (population growth is as fast as possible, vertical line, slope=1) Ex. humans, bacteria, lichens, and mosses

Exponential Growth

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realistic growth, involves K-selection species (K - population hovering around carrying capacity), density-dependent (related to number of organisms because there are limited resources), S curve graph, environment has limited resources and that is why resources stay around carrying capacity, and lag time (accounts for the overshoot) - takes time to see effects of going over carrying capacity

Logistic Growth

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number of different species within a given area

species richness

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population size for each species within a given area

relative abundance

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negative-negative relationship, exists because resource is in small supply, drains energy away from reproduction, 2 species cannot occupy the same niche

competition

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positive-negative relationship, carnivore or omnivore eats an herbivore

predation

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Eating plants (considered predation)

herbivory

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Death does not occur but harm is done to another species

Parasitism

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parasites that attack from the outside (mosquito)

ectoparasites

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parasites that attack from inside (tapeworm)

endoparasites

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positive-positive relationship, promotes co-evolution (can be either good or bad)

mutualism

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positive-no effect relationship, few exist in nature and is hard to see since there is no reciprocal effect

commensalism

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Matter is neither created nor destroyed only transferred and transformed

Law of Conservation of Matter

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All energy proceeds towards a state of entropy with each transfer

Second Law of Thermodynamics

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Rule that states 90% of all energy is lost as heat by metabolism of that organism and 10% of all energy is passed on to the next trophic level each time

10% Rule of Energy

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“starting from scratch” using pioneer species (lichens, mosses)
Pioneers make the dirt needed for the plants and bird bring seeds in their feces as they feed upon lichens
Lichens, grasses, bushes, gymnosperms, hardwood trees, climax community

Primary Succession

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Hardwood forest exists all over the specific area

Climax Community

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“started over at the grass level” not from scratch, dirt already exists
Grasses, bushes, gymnosperms, hardwood trees, climax community

Secondary Succession

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organisms that can perform photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

Primary Producers

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feed upon primary producers

primary consumers

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feed upon primary consumers

secondary consumers

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organisms that feed on dead organic material - which is called detritus

decomposers (detritivores)

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Water vapor is created through evaporation of bodies of water such as oceans and lakes. The water vapor is carried by winds to almost the whole world. It condenses in the air to form precipitation and is returned to land or ocean. The water that lands on land, goes to plants or rivers and streams that lead back to the oceans. Plants take in the water and use it for photosynthesis but can also lose it in the form of transpiration to the air.

Water Cycle

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CO2 is removed from the air by photosynthesizing organisms. They use the CO2 to aid in the development of sugars during photosynthesis. These sugars contain the carbon and are then passed from organism to organism through the food chain. All organisms then release the carbon in the form of CO2 through the process of cellular respiration. The burning of plant materials, natural gas and fossil fuels, which are the remains of dead life forms such as dinosaurs and pre-historic forests, puts CO2 back into the air as well.

Carbon Cycle

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Most nitrogen is removed from the air by water. Water is the universal solvent, so the gas is dissolved in the rain or snow. The nitrogen in the water is mainly consumed by nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil. They convert the nitrogen in the water into ammonium (NH4). This process is called nitrogen fixation. The ammonium (NH4) can be used by plants to make proteins and DNA or RNA. Some ammonium in the soil is consumed by nitrifying bacteria. They convert the ammonium to Nitrite (NO2) first and then into Nitrate (NO3). This is called nitrification. Other bacteria in the soil also eat the nitrates. They are called denitrifying bacteria. They consume the nitrates and break it down into O2 and N2 and both are returned to the air to be used again. This is called denitrification. As plants are eaten by animals, the nitrogen travels through the food chain. When life forms die, the bodies decompose and create ammonia (NH3). The ammonia is converted by bacteria by into ammonium to be used by plants and bacteria. This conversion is called ammonification.

Nitrogen Cycle

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The phosphorus is initially part of rock. As the rock breaks down over time (weathering), the phosphorus is released into the soil. Some dissolves into the water as the rain passes through the soil. This phosphorus makes its way into bodies of water and is available for producers to use to help make organic compounds such as phospholipids and DNA or RNA. Plants can also retrieve the phosphorus from the soil and use it to make organic compounds too. When organisms die, decomposers break down the bodies and return the soil to be reused.

Phosphorus Cycle

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How do humans impact ecosystems?

Harvesting promotes loss of nutrients, fertilizers - good that it replaces but bad that it could hurt the environment because of runoff (Critical Load - maximum amount of nutrients that plants can absorb), burning of fossil fuels can cause acid precipitation

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the buildup of poisons and heavy metals in organisms. The higher up the food chain you get, the poisons get more and more concentrated, which causes healt and reproductive problems.

biological magnification

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rain/snow/sleet/ice with a pH of

acid precipitation