Flashcards in Honors Biology Semester 2 Final Deck (153):
Describe the basic traits all animals share.
All multicellular heterotrophs by ingestion
No cell walls
Muscle and nervous tissue for movement and responding to the environment
Diploid dominant life styles
3 tissues (triploblastic), nervous system, looks the same on either side
symmetrical around a radius (ex: starfish), 2 tissues (diploblastic), no muscle tissue
makes the digestive organs/tract, liver, and lungs
makes skin and nervous tissue
makes muscles, bones, and the heart
toward the head
toward the tail
first opening animals (mouth develops first), first development of the digestive tract (Ex: Mollusks, Annelids, and Arthropods)
second opening animals (anus develops first), first development (Ex: Echinoderms , Chordates (includes humans))
uses our senses to detect environmental stimulus and cues as well as control bodily function
moving the organism about the environment
moving oxygen and nutrients through an organism’s whole body
to perform gas exchange with the environment (O2 in; CO2 out)
forms protective covering of structures, such as organs, cavities, and skin. They as a barrier for various molecules. Relies heavily on the cell junctions to function
binding together and supporting the other tissues of the body
sense stimuli and relay messages. Basic structure is a neuron.
provides a pulling force within the body. Cells of this tissue are called muscle fibers (composed of actin and myosin fibrils). Second largest consumers of energy.
most abundant, acts as “filler material”
loose connective tissue
fat cells, these are for insulation, E storage, and padding
composed of dense collagenous fibers
fibrous connective tissue
connect bone to bone
connect bone with muscle
flexible support material, initial framework for making bone
made from cartilage that has undergone ossification. These cells build bone by depositing Calcium and Magnesium salts in cartilage
Bone (osteo tissue)
connects the whole organism. Transports gases, nutrients, and wastes.
the watery component of blood tissue containing dissolved substances
the cellular component of blood tissue - RBC’s, WBC’s, and platelets
3 basic structures of a neuron
dendrite, body, axon
receives stimuli from the environment or another cell and sends it to the body of the neuron. Collect and carry stimuli energy in to the cell body (they cover a large area)
collects and bundles the stimuli into one message, also contains the organelles. Takes stimuli from different dendrites and compiles the energy into one signal.
takes the information away from the body of the neuron and toward the brain/muscle/gland. this one arm carries the one compiled signal away toward the next neuron or effector cell
3 types of muscle tissue
smooth, cardiac, skeletal
striated muscle, voluntary
striated muscle, involuntary
unstriated muscle, involuntary, functions in peristalsis
rhythmic contraction of the digestive tract or in moving blood through blood vessels
above the diaphragm, contains the heart and lungs, protected by the ribs
below the diaphragm, contains the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs
maintaining a steady internal state
stops a process already in motion and reverses the effect
negative feedback loop
enhances a process already in motion
positive feedback loop
the three steps of sensing a stimulus and responding.
1. sensory input
3. motor output
stimulus sent into the brain or spinal cord. Sensory receptors receive a stimulus from the environment
a form of energy such as electromagnetic (light), mechanical (pressure), and sound waves
the interpretation of the energy by the Central Nervous System (CNS) (“thinking” about the stimulus)
out of the brain or spinal cord, this response is carried out by effector cells
muscles or glands, have an effect on your body
this includes the Sensory receptors and motor nerves
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
a lipid layer of insulation around the axon created by Schwann Cells. It prevents the electrical energy of the neuron from burning the overlying muscle tissue.
the gap between neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell
How do signals cross the synapse?
Signals cross the synapse using neurotransmitters.
the chemical, produced by the neuron, used to transmit the signal across the gap. The most common is Acetylcholine.
the most common neurotransmitter
for the collection of sound waves from the external surrounding environment
a cartilaginous structure that acts like an antenna for collecting sound waves
concentrates the energy as it moves toward the middle ear
the ear drum, converts the sound wave energy into vibrations
for the amplification of energy traveling toward the inner ear
the stirrup, it bangs on the oval window to create ripples inside the cochlea
the smallest bones in the body and are responsible for amplifying the vibration energy.
malleus, incus, and stapes
tubes that connect with the throat and act as a pressure valve for the inner ear
Converts the amplified vibration energy into fluid wave energy
where the transduction of fluid waves into electrical energy occurs - the type of energy the brain can understand.
shaped like a snail shell, this organ is located in the temporal bone of the skull. It contains perilymph fluid that is used to make ripples.
runs on top of the Cochlear duct
runs on bottom of the Cochlear duct and ends at the round window
Cochlear Duct contains the ________ of ______ (where the hairs are located)
contains the mechanoreceptor hairs
bends the hairs as the ripple energy passes over top
Hairs bend causing neurons of the auditory nerve to create an action potential (_______ energy)
absorbs the ripple so as not to create waves in the opposite direction
________ allow us to keep balance. They are located in the Inner Ear.
the covering of the Utricle and Saccule (perilymph reservoirs)
three on each side of the head. The actual organs that detect balance and motion. they are filled with perilymph fluid
the swelling located at the end of a canal. Contains the cupula
contains the embedded mechanoreceptors
contains the blood vessels and black pigment for reducing sun light glare
involved with mucous production to keep the eye cells moist
inflammation of the conjunctiva
clear part of the sclera, acts as a fixed lens, prevents debris from entering
“colored” choroid, controls the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil, operated by smooth muscle
site of the photoreceptors, appears yellow upon dissection
receptors cells for seeing black, white, and shades of gray, most abundant in all animals having these structures, they possess Rhodopsin Pigments
receptor cells for seeing colors, are outnumbered 20:1 by the rods, found in vertebrates, possess photopsin pigments (red, blue, green)
structure that focuses light, made of a transparent, stretchable protein called crystalline
focusing of the eye for near or distant vision
lens degeneration with old age
too much vitreous humor; results in too much pressure in the eye
muscles that stretch the lens
the fluid in the front of the eye
the fluid in the back of the eye
one for each eye, goes toward the brain
collects rights and lefts in to one side of brain
groups of neurons that made the right of left side picture
lateral geniculate nuclei
site of integration of halves into 1 picture
Primary Visual Cortex of the Occipital Lobe of Cerebrum
movement, refers to active movement of an organism or object. Second largest consumer of ATP energy within an organism because the organism has to overcome gravity and friction.
little gravity, much friction. Fusiform (torpedo shaped) body reduces friction
much gravity, much friction, massive amounts of energy to be consumed to overcome
much gravity, little friction, muscular limbs to overcome gravity
blood bathes the organs by moving through the sinuses, this system has a tubular heart with directional arteries to distribute blood (Arthropods and some mollusks)
open circulatory system
blood is confined to traveling through blood vessels under pressure, a muscular chambered heart mostly (not in annelids)
closed circulatory system
chambers that receive blood coming into the heart, composed of a thin layer of muscle tissue
chambers that pump blood away from the heart, composed of a thick layer of muscle tissue
large blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart
medium sized vessels carrying blood away from the heart
smallest blood vessels where nutrients and oxygen diffuse out
small blood vessels that collect waste materials from the tissues
large blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart
Where is our respiratory system located in the body?
in the thoracic cavity
back of mouth
top of trachea
muscular flap covers the trachea by bending over the opening
site of gas exchange by diffusion (if it is a wet surface), only one cell layer thick allowing for rapid diffusion of gases, surrounded by capillary beds (makes it two cell layers thick leads to rapid diffusion in and out), WBCs keep these areas clean
eat plants and meat
breakdown of food
Accomplished through enzymatic hydrolysis primarily
Aided by mechanical digestion as well
Food molecules then undergo absorption into the circulatory system or diffusion into the surrounding tissues
Digestion started as the gastrovascular cavity then evolved into a two opening digestive tract (alimentary canal).
starts digestion by breaking food up into smaller pieces
muscular tube sucks food up into the tract
structures lubricates food for passage through the tract
Crop and gizzard become one organ, the _______.
organ finishes food breakdown and food absorption
organ is for waste collection and water reabsorption
where waste material exits the body
the continuous control of water and solute concentrations within an organism (a part of homeostasis). This regulation occurs across a transport epithelium.
Where do the nitrogenous wastes come from that we must get rid of?
Ammonia is created from using amino acids for energy production
requires lots of water to dispose (fish and other aquatic invertebrates)
requires moderate amounts of water in disposal (mammals and amphibians)
requires very little water (birds and reptiles)
the basic unit of the kidney, structures where blood is actually purified
blood vessel that brings polluted blood into the kidneys
blood vessel takes purified blood away from the kidneys
the outer part of the kidney where the nephrons are located (site of urine production)
middle part of the kidney (site of urine collection from the nephrons)
where urine is collected from the nephrons
triangular shaped structures in the medulla, collection tubules converge to form these
the main collection area (in the center of the kidney) for the collection tubes
these are the extensions (inlets) off the central pelvis that connect to the pyramids.
two tubes that take the urine from the kidneys to the bladder
the expandable urine storage organ (composed of transitional epithelium)