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Flashcards in Honors Biology Semester 2 Final Deck (153):
1

Describe the basic traits all animals share.

All multicellular heterotrophs by ingestion
No cell walls
Muscle and nervous tissue for movement and responding to the environment
Diploid dominant life styles

2

3 tissues (triploblastic), nervous system, looks the same on either side

bilateral symmetry

3

symmetrical around a radius (ex: starfish), 2 tissues (diploblastic), no muscle tissue

radial symmetry

4

makes the digestive organs/tract, liver, and lungs

Endoderm

5

makes skin and nervous tissue

ectoderm

6

makes muscles, bones, and the heart

mesoderm

7

back/top

dorsal

8

front/botton

ventral

9

toward the head

anterior

10

toward the tail

posterior

11

first opening animals (mouth develops first), first development of the digestive tract (Ex: Mollusks, Annelids, and Arthropods)

Protostomes

12

second opening animals (anus develops first), first development (Ex: Echinoderms , Chordates (includes humans))

Deuterostomes

13

uses our senses to detect environmental stimulus and cues as well as control bodily function

nervous system

14

moving the organism about the environment

muscular system

15

moving oxygen and nutrients through an organism’s whole body

circulatory system

16

to perform gas exchange with the environment (O2 in; CO2 out)

respiratory system

17

forms protective covering of structures, such as organs, cavities, and skin. They as a barrier for various molecules. Relies heavily on the cell junctions to function

Epithelial tissue

18

binding together and supporting the other tissues of the body

connective tissue

19

sense stimuli and relay messages. Basic structure is a neuron.

nervous system

20

provides a pulling force within the body. Cells of this tissue are called muscle fibers (composed of actin and myosin fibrils). Second largest consumers of energy.

muscle tissue

21

most abundant, acts as “filler material”

loose connective tissue

22

fat cells, these are for insulation, E storage, and padding

adipose tissue

23

composed of dense collagenous fibers

fibrous connective tissue

24

connect bone to bone

ligaments

25

connect bone with muscle

tendons

26

flexible support material, initial framework for making bone

cartilage

27

made from cartilage that has undergone ossification. These cells build bone by depositing Calcium and Magnesium salts in cartilage

Bone (osteo tissue)

28

connects the whole organism. Transports gases, nutrients, and wastes.

Blood Tissue

29

the watery component of blood tissue containing dissolved substances

plasma

30

the cellular component of blood tissue - RBC’s, WBC’s, and platelets

hematocrit

31

3 basic structures of a neuron

dendrite, body, axon

32

receives stimuli from the environment or another cell and sends it to the body of the neuron. Collect and carry stimuli energy in to the cell body (they cover a large area)

dendrites

33

collects and bundles the stimuli into one message, also contains the organelles. Takes stimuli from different dendrites and compiles the energy into one signal.

body

34

takes the information away from the body of the neuron and toward the brain/muscle/gland. this one arm carries the one compiled signal away toward the next neuron or effector cell

axon

35

3 types of muscle tissue

smooth, cardiac, skeletal

36

striated muscle, voluntary

skeletal

37

striated muscle, involuntary

cardiac

38

unstriated muscle, involuntary, functions in peristalsis

smooth

39

rhythmic contraction of the digestive tract or in moving blood through blood vessels

peristalsis

40

above the diaphragm, contains the heart and lungs, protected by the ribs

thoracic cavity

41

below the diaphragm, contains the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs

abdominal cavity

42

maintaining a steady internal state

homeostasis

43

stops a process already in motion and reverses the effect

negative feedback loop

44

enhances a process already in motion

positive feedback loop

45

the three steps of sensing a stimulus and responding.

1. sensory input
2. integration
3. motor output

46

stimulus sent into the brain or spinal cord. Sensory receptors receive a stimulus from the environment

sensory input

47

a form of energy such as electromagnetic (light), mechanical (pressure), and sound waves

stimulus

48

the interpretation of the energy by the Central Nervous System (CNS) (“thinking” about the stimulus)

integration

49

out of the brain or spinal cord, this response is carried out by effector cells

motor output

50

muscles or glands, have an effect on your body

effector cells

51

this includes the Sensory receptors and motor nerves

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

52

a lipid layer of insulation around the axon created by Schwann Cells. It prevents the electrical energy of the neuron from burning the overlying muscle tissue.

Myelin Sheath

53

the gap between neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell

synapse`

54

How do signals cross the synapse?

Signals cross the synapse using neurotransmitters.

55

the chemical, produced by the neuron, used to transmit the signal across the gap. The most common is Acetylcholine.

neurotransmitter

56

the most common neurotransmitter

acetylcholine

57

for the collection of sound waves from the external surrounding environment

outer ear

58

a cartilaginous structure that acts like an antenna for collecting sound waves

pinna

59

concentrates the energy as it moves toward the middle ear

auditory canal

60

the ear drum, converts the sound wave energy into vibrations

tympanic membrane

61

for the amplification of energy traveling toward the inner ear

middle ear

62

the hammer

malleus

63

the anvil

incus

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the stirrup, it bangs on the oval window to create ripples inside the cochlea

stapes

65

the smallest bones in the body and are responsible for amplifying the vibration energy.

malleus, incus, and stapes

66

tubes that connect with the throat and act as a pressure valve for the inner ear

eustachian tube

67

Converts the amplified vibration energy into fluid wave energy

oval window

68

where the transduction of fluid waves into electrical energy occurs - the type of energy the brain can understand.

inner ear

69

shaped like a snail shell, this organ is located in the temporal bone of the skull. It contains perilymph fluid that is used to make ripples.

cochlea

70

runs on top of the Cochlear duct

vestibular canal

71

runs on bottom of the Cochlear duct and ends at the round window

tympanic canal

72

Cochlear Duct contains the ________ of ______ (where the hairs are located)

organ, corti

73

contains the mechanoreceptor hairs

basilar membrane

74

bends the hairs as the ripple energy passes over top

tectorial membrane

75

Hairs bend causing neurons of the auditory nerve to create an action potential (_______ energy)

electrical

76

absorbs the ripple so as not to create waves in the opposite direction

round window

77

________ allow us to keep balance. They are located in the Inner Ear.

mechanoreceptors

78

the covering of the Utricle and Saccule (perilymph reservoirs)

vestibule

79

three on each side of the head. The actual organs that detect balance and motion. they are filled with perilymph fluid

semi-circular canals

80

the swelling located at the end of a canal. Contains the cupula

ampulla

81

contains the embedded mechanoreceptors

cupula

82

eye white

sclera

83

contains the blood vessels and black pigment for reducing sun light glare

choroid

84

involved with mucous production to keep the eye cells moist

conjunctiva

85

inflammation of the conjunctiva

conjunctivitis

86

clear part of the sclera, acts as a fixed lens, prevents debris from entering

cornea

87

“colored” choroid, controls the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil, operated by smooth muscle

iris

88

site of the photoreceptors, appears yellow upon dissection

retina

89

receptors cells for seeing black, white, and shades of gray, most abundant in all animals having these structures, they possess Rhodopsin Pigments

rods

90

receptor cells for seeing colors, are outnumbered 20:1 by the rods, found in vertebrates, possess photopsin pigments (red, blue, green)

cones

91

structure that focuses light, made of a transparent, stretchable protein called crystalline

lens

92

focusing of the eye for near or distant vision

accommodation

93

misshaped lens

stigmatism

94

nearsighted

myopia

95

farsighted

hyperopia

96

lens degeneration with old age

presbyopia

97

“cloudy lens”

cataract

98

too much vitreous humor; results in too much pressure in the eye

glaucoma

99

muscles that stretch the lens

ciliary body

100

the fluid in the front of the eye

aqueous humor

101

the fluid in the back of the eye

vitreous humor

102

one for each eye, goes toward the brain

optic nerve

103

collects rights and lefts in to one side of brain

optic chiasm

104

groups of neurons that made the right of left side picture

lateral geniculate nuclei

105

site of integration of halves into 1 picture

Primary Visual Cortex of the Occipital Lobe of Cerebrum

106

movement, refers to active movement of an organism or object. Second largest consumer of ATP energy within an organism because the organism has to overcome gravity and friction.

locomotion

107

little gravity, much friction. Fusiform (torpedo shaped) body reduces friction

water

108

much gravity, much friction, massive amounts of energy to be consumed to overcome

air

109

much gravity, little friction, muscular limbs to overcome gravity

land

110

blood bathes the organs by moving through the sinuses, this system has a tubular heart with directional arteries to distribute blood (Arthropods and some mollusks)

open circulatory system

111

blood is confined to traveling through blood vessels under pressure, a muscular chambered heart mostly (not in annelids)

closed circulatory system

112

chambers that receive blood coming into the heart, composed of a thin layer of muscle tissue

atriums

113

chambers that pump blood away from the heart, composed of a thick layer of muscle tissue

ventricles

114

large blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart

arteries

115

medium sized vessels carrying blood away from the heart

arterioles

116

smallest blood vessels where nutrients and oxygen diffuse out

capillaries

117

small blood vessels that collect waste materials from the tissues

venules

118

large blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart

veins

119

Where is our respiratory system located in the body?

in the thoracic cavity

120

back of mouth

pharynx

121

top of trachea

larynx

122

muscular flap covers the trachea by bending over the opening

epiglottis

123

site of gas exchange by diffusion (if it is a wet surface), only one cell layer thick allowing for rapid diffusion of gases, surrounded by capillary beds (makes it two cell layers thick leads to rapid diffusion in and out), WBCs keep these areas clean

alveoli

124

eat plants

herbivores

125

eat meat

carnivores

126

eat plants and meat

omnivores

127

breakdown of food
Accomplished through enzymatic hydrolysis primarily
Aided by mechanical digestion as well
Food molecules then undergo absorption into the circulatory system or diffusion into the surrounding tissues
Digestion started as the gastrovascular cavity then evolved into a two opening digestive tract (alimentary canal).

digestion

128

starts digestion by breaking food up into smaller pieces

mouth/teeth

129

muscular tube sucks food up into the tract

pharynx

130

structures lubricates food for passage through the tract

esophagus

131

food storage

crop

132

food breakdown

gizzard

133

Crop and gizzard become one organ, the _______.

stomach

134

organ finishes food breakdown and food absorption

small intestines

135

organ is for waste collection and water reabsorption

large intestines

136

where waste material exits the body

anus

137

the continuous control of water and solute concentrations within an organism (a part of homeostasis). This regulation occurs across a transport epithelium.

osmoregulation

138

Where do the nitrogenous wastes come from that we must get rid of?

Ammonia is created from using amino acids for energy production

139

requires lots of water to dispose (fish and other aquatic invertebrates)

ammonia

140

requires moderate amounts of water in disposal (mammals and amphibians)

urea

141

requires very little water (birds and reptiles)

uric acid

142

the basic unit of the kidney, structures where blood is actually purified

nephrons

143

blood vessel that brings polluted blood into the kidneys

renal artery

144

blood vessel takes purified blood away from the kidneys

renal vein

145

the outer part of the kidney where the nephrons are located (site of urine production)

renal cortex

146

middle part of the kidney (site of urine collection from the nephrons)

renal medulla

147

where urine is collected from the nephrons

collection tubules

148

triangular shaped structures in the medulla, collection tubules converge to form these

renal pyramids

149

the main collection area (in the center of the kidney) for the collection tubes

renal pelvis

150

these are the extensions (inlets) off the central pelvis that connect to the pyramids.

calyxs

151

two tubes that take the urine from the kidneys to the bladder

ureter

152

the expandable urine storage organ (composed of transitional epithelium)

bladder

153

tube leading from the bladder to outside of the body

urethra