Unit 8: Biodiversity, Bacteria Kingdoms (8.3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8: Biodiversity, Bacteria Kingdoms (8.3) Deck (54):
1

Prokaryotes (Bacteria) are the _______ organisms and most ________ organisms on the planet.

oldest, adaptive

2

Examples of famous bacteria

Plague, TB, Cholera, Botulinum, and Anthrax.

3

Are most bacteria harmful?

No

4

Bacteria are essential for life to exist. They are involved in nutrient recycling – they are __________.

decomposers

5

Two domains of bacteria

Bacteria (common) and Archaea (extremophiles)

6

The genetic difference (between domains) is located in the small subunit of the _________'s RNA sequence.

ribosome (because all cells have ribosomes but not organelles)

7

All prokaryotes are ____cellular.

uni

8

The Three basic shapes of prokaryotes

Cocci (Means “round”.)
Bacilli (Means “rod”.)
Helical (Means “spiral”.)

9

Round prokaryote

Cocci

10

Rod prokaryote

Bacilli

11

Spiral prokaryote

Helical

12

Most prokaryotes will have a ______ ______. (This is not the same as a plant’s cell wall.)

cell wall

13

What is the cell wall primarily for?

protection

14

It also helps prevent the prokaryotes from bursting in an _______ environment. (The cell is _______ to water.)

aquatic, hypertonic

15

The cell wall is mainly composed of proteins and sugars. (These are called _________.)

peptidoglycans

16

Scientists perform a _____ staining for easy, fast identification of most bacteria.

Gram

17

(stain blue) (They possess a thick peptidoglycan layer.)

Gram +

18

(stain Red) (These posses a thin peptidoglycan layer between phospholipids layers.)

Gram -

19

are more dangerous to humans and are usually resistant to antibiotics.

Gram -

20

Some bacteria produce a _______ that covers the cell wall. The ________ is a sticky substance for adherence to surfaces. This capsule material is what actually makes people sick; not the bacteria.

capsule, capsule

21

Some prokaryotes have _______, or cilia/fimbraie, or a ______ body shape for movement.

flagella, helix

22

Some prokaryotes can move by “________”. (“Spitting” out a layer of mucous in front of them to slide on.)

sliming

23

refers to movement in response to a stimulus. (These terms could be used with any organism.)

Taxis

24

(_) indicates movement “toward”; (_) indicates movement “away”.

+, -

25

The ________ tells the type of stimulus. (photo-light; geo-gravity; rheo-current; chemo-chemical)

prefix

26

A prokaryote genome is about _/_____th the amount of a Eukaryotic cell genome.

1/1000

27

It consists of a single circular strand located in the _______ region. (It is not linear, like in Eukaryotes.)

nucleoid

28

The Domain _______ have histones to help DNA coil up; the Domain Bacteria do not have histones.

Archaea

29

Prokaryotes also have _______ for exchanging. (Most plasmids contain resistance information.)

plasmids

30

Bacterial reproduction is accomplished by the process of _______ ________ to create clones. (It is asexual reproduction.) It is like Mitosis, except there is no G2 phase or Mitosis phases… just G1, S, and cytokinesis.

Binary Fission

31

The eating of dead material. (These are decomposers.)

Saprobes

32

These harm other organisms.

Parasites

33

Feeding on Ammonia– NH3 make Ammonium – NH4.

Nitrogen Fixation

34

Feeding on Ammonium and producing Nitrite – NO2 as waste OR feeding on NO2 and producing Nitrate – NO3 as waste.

Nitrification

35

Using sunlight energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar.

Photosynthesis

36

Using Hydrogen Sulfide – H2S for energy instead of sunlight energy in making sugars.

Chemosynthesis

37

Feeding on another organism.

Heterotroph

38

These must intake oxygen to utilize their primary source of energy.

Obligate Aerobes

39

These organisms can be both. They can “function” with or without oxygen.

Facultative Anaerobes

40

These must be without oxygen. (They die in the presence of oxygen.)

Obligate Anaerobes

41

Produce Methane gas – CH4. These are mainly associated with ruminants. (Animals with a rumen as part of the “stomach”.), Swamps, waste disposal, and trash dumps also produce methane. You have them too… living in your large intestine. These are the organisms that cause us to release gas or “fart’.

Methanogens

42

These are salt lovers. (“halo” means “salt”; “phile” means “lover of”.) These bacteria are associated with places like the Dead Sea in Israel or Great Salt Lakes of Utah.

Halophiles

43

These are heat lovers. (These bacteria are found in hot springs or volcanoes.)

Thermophiles

44

Ecological Impact of Bacteria (2)

1. They are important recyclers of nutrients. (They are decomposers/saprobes.)
2. Some can perform Nitrogen Fixation that makes Nitrogen available for plants -> animals eat the plants.

45

(+;+) Both organisms benefit.) (For example, E. Coli in the intestines of most animals. They help with reabsorbing water from the process of digestion.)

Mutualism

46

(+; 0) Only one organism benefits) (These are rare.)

Commensalism

47

( - ; +) One organism is harmed and the other organism benefits.) (For example, Strep Throat in humans.)

Parasitism

48

Disease causing

Pathogenic

49

These prokaryotes account for more than half of all non- genetic diseases in humans.

Pathogenic Bacteria

50

become a problem when the body is busy fighting something else, such as a cold virus. (They see an opportunity to reproduce and take over.)

Opportunists

51

These are secreted proteins that cause disease. (These are mostly Gram + bacteria.)

Exotoxins

52

Proteins of the capsule/membrane/cell wall. (These are mostly Gram – bacteria.)

Endotoxins

53

These are substances that kill bacteria. (They usually end with “mycin”.) (The name means “substance against life”.)

Antibiotics

54

This term refers to cleaning up the environment using living organisms.

Bioremediation