Flashcards in Unit 8: Biodiversity, Bacteria Kingdoms (8.3) Deck (54)
Prokaryotes (Bacteria) are the _______ organisms and most ________ organisms on the planet.
Examples of famous bacteria
Plague, TB, Cholera, Botulinum, and Anthrax.
Are most bacteria harmful?
Bacteria are essential for life to exist. They are involved in nutrient recycling – they are __________.
Two domains of bacteria
Bacteria (common) and Archaea (extremophiles)
The genetic difference (between domains) is located in the small subunit of the _________'s RNA sequence.
ribosome (because all cells have ribosomes but not organelles)
All prokaryotes are ____cellular.
The Three basic shapes of prokaryotes
Cocci (Means “round”.)
Bacilli (Means “rod”.)
Helical (Means “spiral”.)
Most prokaryotes will have a ______ ______. (This is not the same as a plant’s cell wall.)
What is the cell wall primarily for?
It also helps prevent the prokaryotes from bursting in an _______ environment. (The cell is _______ to water.)
The cell wall is mainly composed of proteins and sugars. (These are called _________.)
Scientists perform a _____ staining for easy, fast identification of most bacteria.
(stain blue) (They possess a thick peptidoglycan layer.)
(stain Red) (These posses a thin peptidoglycan layer between phospholipids layers.)
are more dangerous to humans and are usually resistant to antibiotics.
Some bacteria produce a _______ that covers the cell wall. The ________ is a sticky substance for adherence to surfaces. This capsule material is what actually makes people sick; not the bacteria.
Some prokaryotes have _______, or cilia/fimbraie, or a ______ body shape for movement.
Some prokaryotes can move by “________”. (“Spitting” out a layer of mucous in front of them to slide on.)
refers to movement in response to a stimulus. (These terms could be used with any organism.)
(_) indicates movement “toward”; (_) indicates movement “away”.
The ________ tells the type of stimulus. (photo-light; geo-gravity; rheo-current; chemo-chemical)
A prokaryote genome is about _/_____th the amount of a Eukaryotic cell genome.
It consists of a single circular strand located in the _______ region. (It is not linear, like in Eukaryotes.)
The Domain _______ have histones to help DNA coil up; the Domain Bacteria do not have histones.
Prokaryotes also have _______ for exchanging. (Most plasmids contain resistance information.)
Bacterial reproduction is accomplished by the process of _______ ________ to create clones. (It is asexual reproduction.) It is like Mitosis, except there is no G2 phase or Mitosis phases… just G1, S, and cytokinesis.
The eating of dead material. (These are decomposers.)
These harm other organisms.
Feeding on Ammonia– NH3 make Ammonium – NH4.
Feeding on Ammonium and producing Nitrite – NO2 as waste OR feeding on NO2 and producing Nitrate – NO3 as waste.
Using sunlight energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar.
Using Hydrogen Sulfide – H2S for energy instead of sunlight energy in making sugars.
Feeding on another organism.
These must intake oxygen to utilize their primary source of energy.
These organisms can be both. They can “function” with or without oxygen.
These must be without oxygen. (They die in the presence of oxygen.)
Produce Methane gas – CH4. These are mainly associated with ruminants. (Animals with a rumen as part of the “stomach”.), Swamps, waste disposal, and trash dumps also produce methane. You have them too… living in your large intestine. These are the organisms that cause us to release gas or “fart’.
These are salt lovers. (“halo” means “salt”; “phile” means “lover of”.) These bacteria are associated with places like the Dead Sea in Israel or Great Salt Lakes of Utah.
These are heat lovers. (These bacteria are found in hot springs or volcanoes.)
Ecological Impact of Bacteria (2)
1. They are important recyclers of nutrients. (They are decomposers/saprobes.)
2. Some can perform Nitrogen Fixation that makes Nitrogen available for plants -> animals eat the plants.
(+;+) Both organisms benefit.) (For example, E. Coli in the intestines of most animals. They help with reabsorbing water from the process of digestion.)
(+; 0) Only one organism benefits) (These are rare.)
( - ; +) One organism is harmed and the other organism benefits.) (For example, Strep Throat in humans.)
These prokaryotes account for more than half of all non- genetic diseases in humans.
become a problem when the body is busy fighting something else, such as a cold virus. (They see an opportunity to reproduce and take over.)
These are secreted proteins that cause disease. (These are mostly Gram + bacteria.)
Proteins of the capsule/membrane/cell wall. (These are mostly Gram – bacteria.)
These are substances that kill bacteria. (They usually end with “mycin”.) (The name means “substance against life”.)