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Flashcards in Cell Structures and Functions Deck (125):
1

“Principal’s Office”
Houses DNA
chromatin phase-loose DNA
chromosome phase-tightly packed DNA

Nucleus

2

Has Pores, protects nucleus, Double Membrane (phospholipids) (one side is hydrophilic and one side is hydrophobic)

Nuclear membrane

3

“Photocopier”
Makes copies of DNA

Nucleolus

4

Holds cell together, Keeps organelles in place

Cytoplasm

5

Protects and supports cell

cell membrane

6

Not organelles, Make proteins

Ribosomes

7

2 types of ribosomes

Free and bound

8

Make proteins that stay within the cell

Free ribosomes

9

Make proteins that will leave the cell

Bound ribosomes

10

The endoplasmic reticulum is composed of small tubes called _________

cisternae

11

Helps with the synthesis of lipids, phospholipids, and steroids, Helps break down carbohydrates (ex. Glycogen ((stored sugar)) to Glucose), Helps to detoxify blood (Liver cells = Lots of ____)

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

12

Helps with protein synthesis (provides a H2O free environment for protein folding), Ribosomes are bound to the outside and deposit proteins inside as it is made by the ribosome

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

13

Modifies proteins by attaching sugars (called Glycoproteins)
(It’s like a gift wrapping to disguise the protein for export through the cell membrane), composed of flattened tubes called cisternae

Golgi Apparatus

14

Act like the “stomach” of the cell, Involved in digestion and recycling (autophagy), Full of digestive enzymes (lysozomes), Composed of phospholipid bilayer

Lysosomes

15

Act as “closets” for storage of materials
Various types exist (food, contractile, central)

Vacuoles and Vesicles

16

The process of bringing something into the cell

Endocytosis

17

Process of cell “eating”

Phagocytosis

18

The process of cell “drinking”

Pinocytosis

19

Involved in making energy by the performing the process of cellular respiration, Has its own DNA, Has cristae (folded inner membrane) that increases surface area for making energy, _________ matrix has ribosomes and is the site for the Kreb’s Cycle of Cellular Respiration, Evolutionarily significant

Mitochondria

20

Site of photosynthesis in plants and algae, They are a type of plastid (any of a class of small organelles containing pigment or food.), Has its own DNA ribosomes and enzymes (ATP synthase)

Chlorophyll

21

Site of light reaction of photosynthesis (ATP from reaction will be used as energy for making sugar in Calvin Cycle)

Thylakoid

22

Stack of thylakoids

Grana

23

Watery space between thylakoids and outer membrane (site of Calvin Cycle of Photosynthesis)

Stroma

24

Proposed that prokaryotes came to live in a symbiotic relationship (the smaller living inside the larger), Eventually these prokaryotes evolved into eukaryotic cells over hundreds of thousands of years

Endosymbiont Hypothesis

25

Benefits of a smaller cell living inside a larger

Larger gains energy
Smaller gains protection

26

Helps support and protect the cell, Keeps inner organelles organized, Helps with motility, Composed of various sized protein fibers, Composed of microtubules

Cytoskeleton

27

What is motility?

cell movement

28

Large hollow tubes, Composed of tubulin protein, Main function is for support and movement, Help guide movement for organelles

Microtubules

29

Anchor during cell division, made of microtubules

Centrosomes/centrioles

30

“Tow ropes”, Used to move chromosomes during mitosis or meiosis, made of microtubules

Spindle fibers

31

Help with cell movement through wavelike movements

Cilia

32

Help with cell movement, Fewer than cilia and longer in length, Undulating (whipping) movement

Flagella

33

Smallest structures in the cytoskeleton, Solid rods, Composed of actin or myosin protein, Provide a “pulling force”, Abundant in muscle tissue

Microfilaments

34

For protection and durability (holding up plant structure)

Cell wall

35

Primary cell wall composition

cellulose sugar

36

Middle lamella composition

Pectin sugar (“Super glue” between cell walls that hold them together)

37

Secondary cell wall composition

cellulose sugar

38

Outer protective “skeleton” of the cell plasma membrane in animal cells
Also functions in communication with other cells (use glycoproteins to communicate)
Composed mostly of glycoproteins and glycolipids

Extracellular matrix

39

Help to hold cells together so they may work together
Some are tunnels for cell to cell communication

Cellular Junctions

40

Composed of cells
Responds/adapts to environment
Uses energy
Grows and reproduces

Characteristics of a living thing

41

Said to be selectively permeable, Phospholipids make up the majority of it

cell membrane

42

Meaning of cell membrane being selectively permeable

Selects what materials enter or exit the cell through the membrane
Membrane also helps to regulate control of homeostasis (stable internal environment) by controlling entry and exit of certain molecules

43

These molecules are said to be amphipathic (have a hydrophobic and hydrophilic region)

Phospholipid

44

These molecules created bi-layer and the structure is held intact by the presence of water inside and outside the cell

Phospholipid

45

Remember proteins fold into 3D structures and that proteins are composed of amino acids that have water _______ and water ________ regions)

loving, fearing

46

Two types of membrane proteins

integral, peripheral

47

Types of membrane protein, Run completely through the bi-layer from outside to the inside, These function in the transport of molecules and for stability (help maintain integrity of the structure)

Integral

48

Type of membrane protein, Located on 1 side of the membrane (do not extend into the bi-layer of the membrane), Act as sites for attachment of the cytoskeleton

peripheral

49

Functions of membrane proteins?

Transport (Move food, water, etc across membrane), Act as enzymes (control metabolic processes), Cell to cell communication and recognition (so cells can work together in tissues), Intercellular junctions (for “stitching” together to make tissues), Attachment points to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix

50

This molecule helps keep the membrane of all cells flexible

Cholesterol

51

Helps to keep the membrane of plant cells from freezing solid in very cold temperatures (like the Tundra)

Cholesterol

52

Cell membrane characteristics as a moving puzzle because all pieces can move laterally (from side to side)

Fluid Mosaic Model

53

______ and ____ (both gases) diffuse across the wet phospholipid bilayer (example of diffusion)

CO2 and O2

54

_____ (charged particles) and water move through proteins (hence the name transport protein)

Ions

55

Operates upon an established [] gradient, Materials flow from high [] to low [] until equilibrium is reached, This is how a majority of materials are transported into the cell (requires no energy)

Diffusion

56

Water always flows from hypotonic to hypertonic until isotonic (name of process)

osmosis

57

Very little

Hypo

58

A lot

Hyper

59

Referring to water

Tonic

60

Pure water is _________. (hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic)

hypotonic

61

Water molecules ______ stop moving across the membrane even when in isotonic state

never

62

Condition when there is plenty of water in the plant cell (plant is rigid and stiff)

Turgid

63

Condition when there is not enough water in the plant cell (limp and wilted)

Flaccid

64

When the cell membrane rips away from the cell wall killing the plant cell

Plasmolysis

65

Represented by the Greek symbol psi-Ψ

Water Potential

66

Water’s ability to perform work while passing through the cell membrane

Water Potential

67

Water moves from high potential (_______) to low potential (________)

hypotonic, hypertonic

68

The meaning of facilitate

to help

69

Is a type of diffusion, The movement requires the help of a transport protein, Does not require energy to occur (Example: Calcium)

Facilitated diffusion

70

Requires energy, Moving material against the [] gradient
(Examples: Proton pumps, Na+/Ka+ pumps of the nervous system)

Active Transport

71

Attaching phosphorus to an inactive ATP to make it active

Phosphorylation

72

Two types of large molecule transport

Exocytosis, endocytosis

73

Two types of endocytosis (cell eating and drinking)

Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis

74

Main purpose of reproduction by cells

propagation (maintaining) of the lineage

75

the cell that divides into 2 daughter cells

parent cell

76

The parent cell divides into 2 genetically identical __________ _______

daughter cells

77

The daughter cell are identical to each other and the previous __________ cell

parent

78

The cells growing and being able to perform its adult functions

maturation

79

The cell cycle is necessary for normal _________ (as in the size of organs) and _________ (of existing structures)

growth and repair

80

The entire genetic material (DNA) for an organism or cell

genome

81

Can genomes vary?

Yes they vary from species to species.

82

The genome length for humans is about ___ m or ____ ft per cell.

2m or 7ft

83

The two different states of DNA

chromosomes and chromatin

84

Chromatin can be moved around to find the gene segment of interest for __________ ____________.

protein synthesis

85

Chromosomal content of somatic cells is ___ or ______.

2n or diploid

86

Half (in terms of chromosomal content) is referred to as _______ or __.

haploid or n

87

How many chromosomes do human cells have?

46

88

The proteins that help DNA coil up (condense) to form the chromosomes needed for division

histones

89

means portion (ex. chromatid)

tid

90

Half of a duplicated chromosome

sister chromatids

91

The two halves of sister chromatid are held together at the _______ (means center unit)

centromere

92

The centromere is a group of _________.

proteins

93

This process refers to ordinary cell division (Parent cell and daughter cells are exactly alike genetically). Involves only one division after replication occurs in the synthesis phase)

Mitosis

94

Cells spend 90% of their existence in this phase

interphase

95

3 parts of interphase

G1, Synthesis, G2

96

First part of interphase. Primary or first growth. This is ordinary, everyday growth, activity, or repair of the cell. First checkpoint (called "point of no return") is the barrier to the rest of the cycle

G1

97

Second part of interphase. The DNA replicates or is synthesized during this phase. In humans we go from 46 chromosomes "2n" to 92 chromosomes "4n"

Synthesis

98

Third part of interphase. Secondary or second growth. The cell and organelles mainly enlarge or replicate. Second checkpoint occurs after this part. Second checkpoint asks "do we have everything for 2 cells? If yes, the proceed to dividing, if no then make what is missing"

G2

99

Means "nucleus division" (First divide the DNA; then secondly the cytoplasm.)

Mitosis

100

Four parts of mitosis

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase (PMAT)

101

1 step in mitosis. Nucleus envelope is broken down and rearranged to make the spindle apparatus. The chromatin condenses to form X shaped chromosomes (2 chromatids). The centrioles move toward the poles (In animal cells only, plant cells use the cell wall)

Prophase ("pro" means first)

102

2nd step in mitosis. The replicated chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate (middle of cell). The spindle apparatus attaches to the kinetochore (a part of the centromere) and centrioles (the anchors). Third checkpoint occurs here. (Are all the chromosomes attached and lined up and ready to "divide/separate" or "segregate"?)

Metaphase ("meta" means middle)

103

3rd step in mitosis. Replicated chromosomes are pulled apart into sister chromatids and each chromatid moves toward opposite poles of the cell. The spindle apparatus is being broken down as the two sister chromatids are "walked" toward the poles by the motor protein using ATP.

Anaphase ("ana" means separate)

104

4th step in mitosis. The nuclear envelope is rebuilt by using broken down spindle apparatus pieces. The chromatids begin to de-condense back to their chromatin stage. A cleavage furrow (indent) begins to form using actin and myosin microfilaments

Telophase ("telo" means last)

105

The cytoplasm and cell organelles are separated to produce two daughter cells. This is the division of the cytoplasm.

Cytokinesis (cleavage means "split")

106

Occurs before G1. The cells are tired and take a brief break and rest.

G0 (Zero growth phase)

107

These structures are formed from the broken down cytoskeleton and nuclear envelope (recycled). The construction starts at the centrosome (where the centrioles are) and works toward the chromosomes. They attach to the replicated chromosomes. Motor protein "walks" the sister chromatids toward the opposite poles (ends) using ATP by phosphorylation. Non-kinectochore spindles are used to "push" the poles farther apart and help produce the cleavage furrow.

Spindle Apparatus

108

Plant cells do not have centrioles because they have ______ _______ to anchor to.

cell walls

109

The new cell wall "______" develops, using small segments of cellulose, instead of a cleavage furrow.

Plate

110

This is the process of Reproduction/Replication in prokaryotes (bacteria). DNA replication (S phase) starts at the "origin" and works around the entire singular circular chromosome, this results in two identical chromosomes in the nucleoid region. This is followed by producing a cleavage furrow (cytokinesis) to produce 2 new cells that are referred to as clones. The cleavage furrow is produced using actin and myosin microfilaments.

Binary Fission

111

How is Binary Fission related to mitosis in terms of evolution?

Binary Fission would have evolves into Mitosis as the DNA content increased dramatically and also used the endosymbiont hypothesis occurred to produce "organelles." The two major steps are the same: synthesis and division.

112

Regulation is crucial for normal _______ and _____________.

growth and development

113

Regulation ______ for each different type of cell.

varies

114

molecules that regulate/control the cell cycle

cyclins

115

Stopping points to make sure everything is correct before going on to the next phase

check point

116

It is at the end of G1 (Called the Restriction point) "point of no return"

First checkpoint

117

It is at the end of G2 (Do we have 2 sets of DNA and 2 sets of organelles?)

Second checkpoint

118

It is at the end of metaphase (Are all the replicated chromosomes in the middle of the cell and are they ALL attached to the spindle fibers?)

Third checkpoint

119

Cell division is a huge E consuming process, so rest is required for the cell.

G0 (resting state)

120

Abnormal cell growth

Cancer

121

No __________ exist within cancerous cells, so there is no density-dependent inhibition.

checkpoints

122

Cancer starts with transformation of the DNA (________) in a cell

mutation

123

means Abnormal growth

tumor

124

Usually not deadly-easy to cure by removal of the tumor (It is encapsulated-like a tennis ball.) (This kind is non-invasive)

Benign

125

It can be deadly. Normally treated with chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. (means "the crab") (It is invasive. It grows between cells destroying the tissue.)

Malignant