Varia Facts, Causes, and Differences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Varia Facts, Causes, and Differences Deck (32)
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0

Why won't adrenaline injections into the gut: eg. in ulcer Rx, cause much CV probs?

Taken into portal circulation and metabolized by liver

1

4 Causes of Malaena

Varices
Liver Disease
GastricUlcer
Duodenal Ulcers

2

5 causes of microcytic anaemia:

iron deficiency
thalassemia
anaemia of chronic disease
sideroblastic anaemia
lead poisoning

3

3 causes of macrocytic anaemia

B12
and Folate deficiency
drugs that impair DNA synthesis: Methotrexate, sulfa, chemo

4

Venous ulcers characteristics:

distal (medial malleoli)
irregular margins
yellow exudates
venous stasis surrounding
mod painful
superficial depth
normal distal pulses

5

arterial ulcer characteristics

distal locations
pale white, necrotic base
even punched out margins
deep depth
thin, shiny, dry, hairless cool skin
decreased pulses
extremely painful, with claudication

6

characteristics of diabetic ulcers

painless
on pressure points
irregular margins
decreaesd pulses

7

side effects of chronic steroids

immunosuppression, infection
osteoporosis, fractures
lassitude
cushingoid symptoms: hirsutism, bruising, acne
weight gain
hypertension
oedema
hyperglycaemia
amenorrhoea, irregular periods
weight gain

8

stigmata of chronic liver disease?

clubbing
duputryen's
palmar erythema
leukonychia, splinter hemorrhaging
jaundice
metabolic flap
spider naevi
varices: caput medusae
scleral icterus
ascites
encephalopathy
gynecomastia

9

What happens to venous pressure during inspiration?

Venous pressure drops due to vasodilation of IVC therefore increase venous return to right atria

10

What happens to the left side of the heart during inspiration re: murmurs

Expansion of lungs: More pulmonary blood volume>> decreased return to the left atrium and ventricle therefore decreasing the volume of left-sided murmurs

11

What could cause orange urine and tears?

Rifampicin

12

what is the acronym for TB meds?

RIPE
Rifampicin
isoniazide
pyrazinamide
ethambutol

13

how to detect pyelonephritis?

kidney punch

14

pleural plaques on CXR indicative of?

Aesbestos exposure, not necessarily aesbestosis

16

use cochicine for what? how does it work?

gout
pericarditis

inhibits mitosis spindles

17

Warfarin greater than what you need to adjust?

>4
adjust dose

18

Normal Creatinine?

70-150umol

19

What 5 antibiotics increase risk of C. Diff?

Clindamycin
3,4th gen cephalosporin
Quinolones
Augmentin Dura Forte

Macrolides

20

What virus careful for post-renal transplant?

BK Virus

21

HIV has increased risk of what in heart? why?

MI due to atherosclerosis
HAART

22

what is normal pressure hydrocephalus?

CSF pressure building up gradually over time in older adults, drainage gradually blocked, slow enlargement of ventricles eventually causes symptoms

23

what is normal pressure hydrocephalus?

CSF pressure building up gradually over time in older adults, drainage gradually blocked, slow enlargement of ventricles eventually causes symptoms

24

Mefloquine adverse reaction?

adverse neuropsychiatric reactions

25

treatment drug for Menieres?

Prochlorperazine
Stemetil

26

what artery supplies the AV node?

Right coronary

27

Mobitz Type 1 vs. Type 2

Type 1: lengthening PR intervals
Type 2: fixed PR with random drop beats

28

describe ECG in 1st degree heart block?

lengthened PR interval, no dropped beats

29

describe ECG in 3rd degree heart block?

No SA or AV node conduction, all ventricular focus

30

what is Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

complex condition in which one or more tumors form in your pancreas or the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum). These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin, which causes your stomach to produce too much acid. The excess acid, in turn, leads to peptic ulcers.