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Flashcards in Venous Gross Anatomy Deck (50):
1

The paired peroneals empty what portion of the leg?

lateral leg

2

The paired posterior tibial veins empties what portion of the leg?

back of leg

3

The paired anterior tibial veins empty what portion of the leg?

front of leg

4

The popliteal vein is formed by what two veins?

ATV and tib-peroneal trunk

5

The femoral vein becomes the FV where?

when it passes through the adductor hiatus in the lower thigh

6

The common femoral vein is formed by the joining of what two veins?

FV and deep femoral

7

The common femoral vein becomes the external iliac vein where?

inguinal ligament

8

What vein is formed by the confluence of the EIV and IIV?

common iliac vein

9

The lt common iliac vein passes under the right common iliac artery, extrinsic compression may be evident. This pressure point may account for left sided DVT. Also known as what?

May-Thurner syndrome

10

The IVC branches commonly where?

5th lumbar vertebra

11

The small saphenous vein ascends to join where?

the back of the calf joining the popliteal vein

12

What is the longest vein in the body originating on dorsum of the foot and travels medially to the groin?

greater saphenous vein

13

What carries blood from the superficial veins into the deep veins?

perforators

14

What has three ankle perforators and plays a major role in development of venous stasis ulcers?

posterior arch veins

15

What has an important lateral perforating branch?

SSV

16

What are the perforators of the GSV?

Cockett's I, II, III, are the ankle perforators (off the posterior arch)
Sherman's and Boyd's are the knee
Dodd's and Hunterian are the thigh

17

Intracranial venous sinuses?

Spaces between the dura mater and periosteum that drain blood into the IJV

18

Lower extremity sinuses?

a) dilated channels in soleal and gastrocnemius muscles
b) drains blood into the PTV and PerV
c) major part of calf-muscle pump

19

What veins drain the lateral hand and forearm?

radial veins

20

The axillary vein is formed by the confluence of what veins?

brachial and basilic

21

The subclavian is formed by the confluence of what veins?

axillary and cephalic

22

Innominate vein is formed by what two veins?

subclavian and internal jugular
AKA brachialcephalic

23

The right and left innominate veins come together to form what?

the superior vena cava

24

What vein empties the medial aspect of the arm and can be harvested for arterial bypass conduit?

basilic
formed by the digital veins

25

Empties the lateral aspect of the arm and can be harvested for arterial bypass conduit?

cephalic vein
formed by digital veins

26

What carries blood into sinusoids of the liver with hepato-petal flow and carries approx 80% of blood flow to the liver?

portal vein

27

What vein is formed by the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and drains abd part of digestive tract, pancreas, spleen, and gallbladder?

portal vein

28

What vein carries blood away from the liver with hepato-fugal flow?

hepatic veins

29

Contraction of smooth muscle cells referred to as veno-motor tone, can occur in response to stimulation of the nervous system how?

temperature, exercise, stress, and trauma

30

Valves of lower extremities are more susceptible to disease secondary to the effects of what?

venous thrombosis
increased ambulatory venous pressure from gravity, increased intrabdominal pressure and/or venous obstruction

31

Veins without valves?

-soleal sinuses
-common iliac and internal iliac
-innominate
-superior and inferior vena cava

32

Veins with valves and the number of valves?

-GSV 12 valves, most below the knee
-small saphenous 6 to 12
-each perforators contain a valve
-infrapopliteal 7 to 12 valves
-popliteal and femoral 1 to 3
-external iliac valves 25% of the time
-common femoral 1
-jugular 1
-basilic and cephalic
-variable number in UE deep veins

33

What is similar about peripheral venous and arterial?

resistance

34

True or false, arteries and veins carry the same amount of blood?

true

35

What vein shape offers more flow resistance, circular or flattened?

flattened

36

The extra-pulmonary veins carry about how much of the blood in the body?

2/3's

37

When distended, the cross-sectional area of the vein is about how much bigger than the corresponding artery?

3-4 times

38

The pressure of the veins is determined by the pressure within the vein versus pressure outside the vein, which is what type of pressure?

transmural or distended presssure

39

Low transmural pressure results in what type of vein shape?

low blood volume results in dumbbell shape

40

What type of pressure is equivalent to the weight of a column of blood pressing against the vessels of the body?

hydrostatic pressure
uses the heart as a reference point

41

HP=pgh means what?

p= specific gravity of blood
g= acceleration due to gravity
h= distance from the heart

42

when a patient is supine, the HP exerted on the veins and arteries is what?

zero

43

When a patient is standing, what is the HP?

gradually increases from level to level down the body reaching 100 mmHg at the ankle
Ankle pressure = circulatory pressure + 100 mmHg

44

When a body part is above the heart, the HP is what?

measured less than circulatory
minimum is 0 mmHg dues to vessel collapse
Arm P = circulatory P - 50 mmHg

45

What is the process of the calf muscle pump?

a) blood moves from superficial system to deep system
b) competent valves prevent reflux
c) venous volume and pressure decreases
d) venous return to heart increases

46

What is the result when the calf muscle pump is ineffective?

a) incompetent valves causes reflux
b) venous volume and pressure increases
c( results in venous pooling and ambulatory venous hypertension

47

What percentage of blood in the legs is forced toward the heart after one calf muscle pump?

>60%

48

What is the result of inspiration?

a) decreased in intra-thoracic pressure
b) increases blood flow from upper extremities
c) increases in intra-abdominal pressure
d) decreases blood flow from lower extremities

49

What is the result of exhalation?

a) increases in intra-thoracic pressure
b) decreases blood flow from upper extremities
c) decreases in intra-abdominal pressure
d) increases blood flow from lower extremities

50

What is the result of the valsalva maneuver?

a) patient takes in deep breath and holds it, then bears down
b) intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressure increases significantly
c) all venous return halted
d) this maneuver equates with proximal compression while preforming Doppler assessment of the lower extremities