Flashcards in Venous Gross Anatomy Deck (50):
The paired peroneals empty what portion of the leg?
The paired posterior tibial veins empties what portion of the leg?
back of leg
The paired anterior tibial veins empty what portion of the leg?
front of leg
The popliteal vein is formed by what two veins?
ATV and tib-peroneal trunk
The femoral vein becomes the FV where?
when it passes through the adductor hiatus in the lower thigh
The common femoral vein is formed by the joining of what two veins?
FV and deep femoral
The common femoral vein becomes the external iliac vein where?
What vein is formed by the confluence of the EIV and IIV?
common iliac vein
The lt common iliac vein passes under the right common iliac artery, extrinsic compression may be evident. This pressure point may account for left sided DVT. Also known as what?
The IVC branches commonly where?
5th lumbar vertebra
The small saphenous vein ascends to join where?
the back of the calf joining the popliteal vein
What is the longest vein in the body originating on dorsum of the foot and travels medially to the groin?
greater saphenous vein
What carries blood from the superficial veins into the deep veins?
What has three ankle perforators and plays a major role in development of venous stasis ulcers?
posterior arch veins
What has an important lateral perforating branch?
What are the perforators of the GSV?
Cockett's I, II, III, are the ankle perforators (off the posterior arch)
Sherman's and Boyd's are the knee
Dodd's and Hunterian are the thigh
Intracranial venous sinuses?
Spaces between the dura mater and periosteum that drain blood into the IJV
Lower extremity sinuses?
a) dilated channels in soleal and gastrocnemius muscles
b) drains blood into the PTV and PerV
c) major part of calf-muscle pump
What veins drain the lateral hand and forearm?
The axillary vein is formed by the confluence of what veins?
brachial and basilic
The subclavian is formed by the confluence of what veins?
axillary and cephalic
Innominate vein is formed by what two veins?
subclavian and internal jugular
The right and left innominate veins come together to form what?
the superior vena cava
What vein empties the medial aspect of the arm and can be harvested for arterial bypass conduit?
formed by the digital veins
Empties the lateral aspect of the arm and can be harvested for arterial bypass conduit?
formed by digital veins
What carries blood into sinusoids of the liver with hepato-petal flow and carries approx 80% of blood flow to the liver?
What vein is formed by the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and drains abd part of digestive tract, pancreas, spleen, and gallbladder?
What vein carries blood away from the liver with hepato-fugal flow?
Contraction of smooth muscle cells referred to as veno-motor tone, can occur in response to stimulation of the nervous system how?
temperature, exercise, stress, and trauma
Valves of lower extremities are more susceptible to disease secondary to the effects of what?
increased ambulatory venous pressure from gravity, increased intrabdominal pressure and/or venous obstruction
Veins without valves?
-common iliac and internal iliac
-superior and inferior vena cava
Veins with valves and the number of valves?
-GSV 12 valves, most below the knee
-small saphenous 6 to 12
-each perforators contain a valve
-infrapopliteal 7 to 12 valves
-popliteal and femoral 1 to 3
-external iliac valves 25% of the time
-common femoral 1
-basilic and cephalic
-variable number in UE deep veins
What is similar about peripheral venous and arterial?
True or false, arteries and veins carry the same amount of blood?
What vein shape offers more flow resistance, circular or flattened?
The extra-pulmonary veins carry about how much of the blood in the body?
When distended, the cross-sectional area of the vein is about how much bigger than the corresponding artery?
The pressure of the veins is determined by the pressure within the vein versus pressure outside the vein, which is what type of pressure?
transmural or distended presssure
Low transmural pressure results in what type of vein shape?
low blood volume results in dumbbell shape
What type of pressure is equivalent to the weight of a column of blood pressing against the vessels of the body?
uses the heart as a reference point
HP=pgh means what?
p= specific gravity of blood
g= acceleration due to gravity
h= distance from the heart
when a patient is supine, the HP exerted on the veins and arteries is what?
When a patient is standing, what is the HP?
gradually increases from level to level down the body reaching 100 mmHg at the ankle
Ankle pressure = circulatory pressure + 100 mmHg
When a body part is above the heart, the HP is what?
measured less than circulatory
minimum is 0 mmHg dues to vessel collapse
Arm P = circulatory P - 50 mmHg
What is the process of the calf muscle pump?
a) blood moves from superficial system to deep system
b) competent valves prevent reflux
c) venous volume and pressure decreases
d) venous return to heart increases
What is the result when the calf muscle pump is ineffective?
a) incompetent valves causes reflux
b) venous volume and pressure increases
c( results in venous pooling and ambulatory venous hypertension
What percentage of blood in the legs is forced toward the heart after one calf muscle pump?
What is the result of inspiration?
a) decreased in intra-thoracic pressure
b) increases blood flow from upper extremities
c) increases in intra-abdominal pressure
d) decreases blood flow from lower extremities
What is the result of exhalation?
a) increases in intra-thoracic pressure
b) decreases blood flow from upper extremities
c) decreases in intra-abdominal pressure
d) increases blood flow from lower extremities