Flashcards in Misc arterial testing Deck (18):
How is arteriography preformed?
A thin catheter is inserted in a superficial artery, most common are CFA, axillary, or brachial. Contrast agent injected. Fluoroscopy used to obtain image. Patient remains supine for 6-8 hours with a sandbag over area to avoid bleeding.
How does atherosclerotic plaque appear on arteriography?
irregular or smooth
What is a vasospasm?
severe narrowing usually without occlusion
Limitations of arteriography?
patients allergic to contrast or in kidney failure
inaccurate in its hemodynamic assessment because of inability to provide many images in multiple planes in real time
Complications of arteriography?
hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, occlusion, neurologic complications
What uses radio frequency energy and a strong magnetic field to produce images?
MRI instruments quantitate blood flow and construct images that look like angiograms. Show flowing blow without contrast
Limitations of MRA?
-presence of metal clips, pacemakers
-can overestimate stenosis due to slow flow or turbulence
What are MRA useful for?
AAA, dissections, peripheral artery evaluation
What is computerized tomography useful for?
size of aorta, extent of aneurysm, helps define relationship of aorta to renal artery origins
How is aspirin helpful for arterial problems?
-It is an antiplatelet drug that decreases platelet aggregation resulting in decreased thrombotic activity
-Other medications help decreased blood viscosity
-Antihypertensive drugs serve to decrease forces against the walls
What is the surgical removal of athersclerotic material, usually form the intimal lining?
Common bypass grafts?
ao to iliac arteries (also used for AAA)
ao to bi-femoral (also used for AAA)
femoral to popliteal
femoral to PTA; to ATA; to Peroneal
other: renal artery, SMA
What is used to dilate focal plaque formation in vessel?
(percutaneous transluminal angioplasty)
How is the angioplasty preformed?
catheter with balloon tip is inserted and inflated to push plaque against the vessel wall
What vessels are angioplasties usually preformed in?
renal, iliac, femoral, or popliteal
What is used to maintain intraluminal structure/patency of artery? Acts as a type of scaffold.
stent/ stent graft
used in ao, renal, iliac, femoral, repair AAA
Limitations of a stent?
abd gas, patient unable to lie flat, complications similar to arteriography