Cerebrovascular Gross anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cerebrovascular Gross anatomy Deck (46):
1

What artery arises from ophthalmic artery, exits orbit medially to supply mid-forehead, joins ECA via some of its branches

frontal artery

2

The majority of blood flows into which portion of the carotid, internal or external?

internal
distributes blood to low-resistance vascular beds

3

Where does the ICA terminate?

middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery

4

What branch of the carotid has eight major branches, the first branch is usually the superior thyroid artery?

external carotid artery
distributes blood to high-resistance vascular beds

5

Formed by confluence of vertebral arteries, divides into posterior cerebral arteries?

basilar artery

6

The internal carotid travels into the base of the skull, intracranial branches are?

Ophthalmic artery: originates near carotid siphon, a significate curve in the ICA
Posterior communicating artery

7

What is the largest intra-arterial connection?

circle of willis

8

Blood flow must change direction as the flowstream narrows entering the stenosis and enlarges as it exits. What causes energy loss through inertia?

Eddy currents, turbulence, and vortices

9

What arteries in the circle of willis?

Distal internal carotid, anterior cerebral arteries joined together by the anterior communicating artery, posterior cerebral arteries joined together by the posterior communicating arteries.

10

What are the important anastomoses?

a) ECA-ICA connections via orbital and ophthalmic arteries
b) occipital branch of ECA with atlantic branch of vertebral
c) deep cervical and ascending cervical branches of subclavian to branches of lower vertebral artery

11

First branch off the subclavian artery, unite after entering skull to form basilar artery?

vertebral
rt usually smaller than lt

12

What artery arise from ophthalmic artery, travels anteriorly and superiorly to the globe, joins ECA via some of its branches

supraorbital artery

13

What is an atheromatous plaque complicated lesion?

a fibrous plaque that includes fibrous tissue, more collagen, calcium, and cellular debris

14

What results because velocity and area are inversely proportional, acceleration causes increased energy losses?

velocity acceleration

15

Total fluid energy along a streamline of fluid flow is constant?

bernoulli principle

16

Transient ischemic attack?

A fleeting neurological dysfunction, symptoms last less than 24 hours, and usually embolic from heart or carotid artery

17

Transient symptoms?

transient ischemic attack
vertebral basilar insuffficiency

18

Permanent symptoms: cerebrovascular accident

symptoms last more than 24 hours
complete recovery does not occur

19

A form of arteriosclerosis; localized accumulations of lipid-containing material (atheroma), smooth muscle cells, collagen, fibrin and platelets

atheromatous

20

Most commonly caused by dysplasia of media along with overgrowth of collagen, bead-like appearance, and seen often in women?

fibromuscular dysplasia

21

Formed within or beneath the intima, causing thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of walls?

atherosclerosis
can result in decreased perfusion to brain

22

Fibrous plaque atheromatous plaque?

accumulation of lipids, collagen and elastic fibers

23

Large amounts of red blood cells trapped within a fibrin network, clumps of platelets may be evident?

thrombus

24

Where is an aneurysm rarely seen?

cervical carotid artery

25

Fatty streak atheromatous plaque?

thin layer of lipid material on intimal layer

26

Piece of thrombus breaks loose and travels distally until it lodges in a small vessel

embolism

27

Common sites for bruit evaluation?

carotid and subclavian

28

Atheromatous plaque ulcerative lesion?

deterioration of the normally smooth surface of the fibrous cap; may result in distal embolization

29

Highly vascular structure that develops between the ICA and ECA, usually fed by the ECA?

carotid body tumor

30

A noise heard as the result of turbulent flow, frequently associated with a hemodynamically significant lesion?

bruit
may not be evident with a very tight stenosis

31

A left hemispheric CVA results in neurological deficits where?

on the rt side of the body

32

Symptoms frequently seen with ICA lesion?

unilateral paresis, unilateral paresthesia, aphasia, amaurosis fugax

33

Intimal thickening from rapid production of smooth muscle cells, a response to vascular injury/reconstruction post carotid endarterectomy?

neointimal hyperplasia
significant stenosis may occur 6 to 24 months

34

Weakness or slight paralysis on one side of body?

unilateral paresis

35

muscular uncoordination, inability to control gait?

ataxia

36

It is recommended to obtain bilateral BP measurements to detect what?

prox obstruction, subclavian steal

37

What specific eye symptom is suggestive of ipsilateral ICA disease?

amaurosis fugax

38

Symptoms frequently seen with vertebrobasilar lesion?

vertigo, ataxia, bilateral visual blurring or double vision, bilateral paresthesia or anesthesia, drop attack

39

Prickling or tingling of the skin?

unilateral paresthesia

40

Aphasia?

inability to speak

41

amaurosis fugax?

temporary, partial or total blindness, usually of one eye

42

Non-localizing symptoms of posterior circulation?

dizziness, syncope, severe headache

43

Symptoms frequently seen with MCA lesion?

aphasia or dysphasia
more severe facial and arm hemiparesis or hemiplegia
behavioral changes

45

Symptoms frequently seen with ACA lesion?

more severe leg hemiparesis or hemiplegia
incontinence
loss of coordination

45

falling to the ground without a loss of consciousness?

drop attack

46

Symptoms frequently seen with PCA lesion?

dyslexia, coma, paralysis usually does not occur