Arterial Testing Flashcards Preview

Vascular Board > Arterial Testing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arterial Testing Deck (35):
1

Chronic occlusive disease signs and symptoms of claudication

#Pain in muscles during exercise, subsides with rest.
#Results from inadequate blood supply to muscle.
#Discomfort is predictable and subsides within minutes after exercise.
#Disease usually prox to location of symptoms.
#Pseduo-claudication mimics vascular symptoms but neurogenic or orthopedic in origin.

2

Chronic occlusive disease signs and symptoms of ischemic rest pain.

A more severe symptom of diminished blood flow.
Occurs when limb not dependent; BP decreased (when sleeping)

3

chronic occlusive disease tissue loss signs and symptoms.

Necrosis or death of tissue.
Due to deficient or absent blood supply.

4

6 P's of acute arterial occlusion symptoms.

pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis, polar (cold)

5

T or F, acute arterial occlusion may result from thrombus, embolism, or trauma?

True
Emergency situation since abrupt onset does not provide for development of collateral channels.

6

A condition that exists when symptoms of intermittent digital ischemia occur in response to cold exposure or emotional stress?

Raynaud's phenomenon

7

What type of disorder is Raynaud's? Symptoms?

Vasospastic
Changes in skin color include pallor (whiteness), cyanosis (bluish), or rubor (dark red)

8

What is primary Raynaud's?

#ischemia due to digital arterial spasm.
#common in young women; maybe hereditary, bilateral; history of symptoms for 2 years without progressive/evidence of cause.
#benign condition with excellent prognosis

9

What is secondary Raynaud's?

#AKA obstructive Raynaud's syndrome.
#Normal vasoconstrictive responses of arterioles superimposed on a fixed artery obstruction. Ischemia constantly present.
#May be manifestation of Buerger's disease.

10

Skin color changes:
-Result of deficient blood supply; skin pale.
-Suggests dilated vessels or vessels dilated secondary to reactive hyperemia; skin reddened.
-A concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin, causes bluish discoloration.

Pallor
Rubor
Cyanosis

11

Physical examination of skin changes include:

Skin color
Temperature
Lesion: ulcers, deep, painful compared to venous, duration, gangrene
Capillary filling: increase in refill time is decreased perfusion
Elevation/dependency changes: pallor during elevation, red with dependency

12

Grading scale of palpable pulse:

0 none to 4+ bounding
Aneurysms can be described as bounding.

13

Palpable vibration or thrill over pulse site may indicate what?

fistula, post stenotic turbulence, or patient dialysis access site.

14

palpable pulses include:

Aorta, femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial>
Peroneals not palpable due to depth.

15

Bruit auscultation is more often done with what exam?

Carotid

16

What are the arterial risk factors of diabetes?

Atherosclerosis, higher incidence of disease, calcifications, neuropathy, higher incidence of gangrene

17

Arterial risk factors of hypertension?

Unclear if high BP is a causative factor or if enhances atherosclerotic process. Systematic hypertension is associated with greater incidence of coronary atherosclerosis. Increased BP taxes the heart.

18

Arterial risks of hyperlipidemia?

Elevated values closely associated with atherosclerosis.

19

Smoking and other arterial disease risks?

smoking irritates the endothelial lining of the vessels, causing vasoconstriction. other uncontrollable risks are age, family history, male gender.

20

What is the most common arterial pathology that involves thickening, hardening, loss of elasticity of the artery walls?

atherosclerosis (obliterans)

21

Atherosclerosis changes occur in what layer of the vessel?

intima and media layer

22

Major risk factors of atherosclerosis?

smoking, hyperlipidemia, and family history

23

Most common sites of atherosclerosis?

carotid bifurcation, vessel origins, infra-renal aorto-iliac system, CFA bifurcation, SFA at the adductor canal level, and trifurcation region.

24

Leriche syndrome is caused by obstruction of the aorta and occurs in males and is characterized by?

Fatigue in hips, thighs, or calves with exercise
Absence of femoral pulses
Impotence
Pallor and coldness of LE

25

Obstruction of a vessel by foreign substance or blood clot. May be solid, liquid, or gaseous. May arise from the body or enter from outside.

Embolism

26

Most frequent cause of an embolism?

Small plaque breaks loose and lodges in small vessel. An example is blue toe syndrome. Toe ischemia results

27

Dilation of all three arterial wall layers?

true aneurysm

28

most common site of a dissecting aneurysm?

thoracic aorta

29

Most common location of a true aneurysm?

infrarenal aorta
other locations include thoracic, femoral, popliteal, and renal

30

most frequent complications of an aneurysm?

rupture or embolization of the peripheral aneurysms

31

Nonatherosclerotic lesions include?

Arteritis, coarctation of the aorta, dissection, vasospastic disorders, and entrapment syndrome

32

Arteritis is associated with:

smoking, men

33

can affect tibial and peroneal arteries ans smaller vessels, inflammation of wall leading to thrombosis, Buergers syndrome, and occlusion of distal arteries.

arteritis

34

Congenital narrowing or stricture of thoracic aorta?

coarctation of aorta

35

clinical findings of coarctation of the arota?

hypertension due to decreased kidney perfusion, manifestations of LE ischemia (decreased pulses)