Flashcards in Arterial Testing Deck (35):
Chronic occlusive disease signs and symptoms of claudication
#Pain in muscles during exercise, subsides with rest.
#Results from inadequate blood supply to muscle.
#Discomfort is predictable and subsides within minutes after exercise.
#Disease usually prox to location of symptoms.
#Pseduo-claudication mimics vascular symptoms but neurogenic or orthopedic in origin.
Chronic occlusive disease signs and symptoms of ischemic rest pain.
A more severe symptom of diminished blood flow.
Occurs when limb not dependent; BP decreased (when sleeping)
chronic occlusive disease tissue loss signs and symptoms.
Necrosis or death of tissue.
Due to deficient or absent blood supply.
6 P's of acute arterial occlusion symptoms.
pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis, polar (cold)
T or F, acute arterial occlusion may result from thrombus, embolism, or trauma?
Emergency situation since abrupt onset does not provide for development of collateral channels.
A condition that exists when symptoms of intermittent digital ischemia occur in response to cold exposure or emotional stress?
What type of disorder is Raynaud's? Symptoms?
Changes in skin color include pallor (whiteness), cyanosis (bluish), or rubor (dark red)
What is primary Raynaud's?
#ischemia due to digital arterial spasm.
#common in young women; maybe hereditary, bilateral; history of symptoms for 2 years without progressive/evidence of cause.
#benign condition with excellent prognosis
What is secondary Raynaud's?
#AKA obstructive Raynaud's syndrome.
#Normal vasoconstrictive responses of arterioles superimposed on a fixed artery obstruction. Ischemia constantly present.
#May be manifestation of Buerger's disease.
Skin color changes:
-Result of deficient blood supply; skin pale.
-Suggests dilated vessels or vessels dilated secondary to reactive hyperemia; skin reddened.
-A concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin, causes bluish discoloration.
Physical examination of skin changes include:
Lesion: ulcers, deep, painful compared to venous, duration, gangrene
Capillary filling: increase in refill time is decreased perfusion
Elevation/dependency changes: pallor during elevation, red with dependency
Grading scale of palpable pulse:
0 none to 4+ bounding
Aneurysms can be described as bounding.
Palpable vibration or thrill over pulse site may indicate what?
fistula, post stenotic turbulence, or patient dialysis access site.
palpable pulses include:
Aorta, femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial>
Peroneals not palpable due to depth.
Bruit auscultation is more often done with what exam?
What are the arterial risk factors of diabetes?
Atherosclerosis, higher incidence of disease, calcifications, neuropathy, higher incidence of gangrene
Arterial risk factors of hypertension?
Unclear if high BP is a causative factor or if enhances atherosclerotic process. Systematic hypertension is associated with greater incidence of coronary atherosclerosis. Increased BP taxes the heart.
Arterial risks of hyperlipidemia?
Elevated values closely associated with atherosclerosis.
Smoking and other arterial disease risks?
smoking irritates the endothelial lining of the vessels, causing vasoconstriction. other uncontrollable risks are age, family history, male gender.
What is the most common arterial pathology that involves thickening, hardening, loss of elasticity of the artery walls?
Atherosclerosis changes occur in what layer of the vessel?
intima and media layer
Major risk factors of atherosclerosis?
smoking, hyperlipidemia, and family history
Most common sites of atherosclerosis?
carotid bifurcation, vessel origins, infra-renal aorto-iliac system, CFA bifurcation, SFA at the adductor canal level, and trifurcation region.
Leriche syndrome is caused by obstruction of the aorta and occurs in males and is characterized by?
Fatigue in hips, thighs, or calves with exercise
Absence of femoral pulses
Pallor and coldness of LE
Obstruction of a vessel by foreign substance or blood clot. May be solid, liquid, or gaseous. May arise from the body or enter from outside.
Most frequent cause of an embolism?
Small plaque breaks loose and lodges in small vessel. An example is blue toe syndrome. Toe ischemia results
Dilation of all three arterial wall layers?
most common site of a dissecting aneurysm?
Most common location of a true aneurysm?
other locations include thoracic, femoral, popliteal, and renal
most frequent complications of an aneurysm?
rupture or embolization of the peripheral aneurysms
Nonatherosclerotic lesions include?
Arteritis, coarctation of the aorta, dissection, vasospastic disorders, and entrapment syndrome
Arteritis is associated with:
can affect tibial and peroneal arteries ans smaller vessels, inflammation of wall leading to thrombosis, Buergers syndrome, and occlusion of distal arteries.
Congenital narrowing or stricture of thoracic aorta?
coarctation of aorta