Viruses, Bacteria, and Protists Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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1

Describe the characteristics for an organism to be considered “living.”

All living things are composed of cells.
Living things possess differing levels of complexity (For example, a cell has a membrane. This is only one complex part of a cell. Cells have ribosomes for making proteins, another part.)
Living things use e in metabolic processes.
Living things respond to their environment,
All living things adapt to the environment.
All organisms reproduce to keep the lineage going.
All organisms grow and develop.

2

Describe the hierarchy of life from cells to biosphere.

Cells – This is the basic unit of life. (Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic.)
Tissues – These are composed from cells with common structure and function.
Organs – This functional structure is a collection of similar tissues working together.
Organ Systems – These are composed of organs working together. (There are 11 systems in animals.)
Organism – This when all the organ systems are working together to create a multi-cellular organism. (This is a great example of Emergent Properties.)
Population – A group of the same species, in the same place, at the same time, and showing signs of reproduction.
Community – A group of interacting populations in the same area at the same time.
Ecosystem – Groups of interacting communities all experiencing common aboitic factors.
Biosphere – The entire part of the planet that can support life.

3

This is the basic unit of life. (Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic.)

Cells

4

These are composed from cells with common structure and function.

Tissues

5

This functional structure is a collection of similar tissues working together.

Organs

6

These are composed of organs working together. (There are 11 systems in animals.)

Organ Systems

7

This when all the organ systems are working together to create a multi-cellular organism. (This is a great example of Emergent Properties.)

Organism

8

A group of the same species, in the same place, at the same time, and showing signs of reproduction.

Population

9

A group of interacting populations in the same area at the same time.

Community

10

Groups of interacting communities all experiencing common aboitic factors.

Ecosystem

11

The entire part of the planet that can support life.

Biosphere

12

How do you name a species according to the binomial nomenclature?

The Genus name is written first and has a capitalized first letter. The Species name is written second and is not capitalized. The whole name is written in Latin and italicized.

13

Describe the Linnaeus’ taxonomic classification.

In Linnaeus’ system, organisms are grouped according to shared characteristics into a hierarchical series of fixed categories ranging from subspecies at the bottom to kingdom at the top. (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus, Species)

14

Describe the basic structure of a virus.

Viral Genome - Viruses possess either a double or single strand of DNA or RNA. (This is how viruses are classified.) Viruses contain very small amounts of DNA or RNA– most are 4 to 500 genes total.
Viral Protein Coat (Capsid) - protects the DNA or RNA and helps with the attachment of the virus to a host cell. It is built from protein units called capsomeres.
Viral Envelope - This is a cloak derived from the previous host cell plasma membrane. (It is an example of mimicry. It looks like a normal cell, but it is actually like a Trojan horse. The danger is inside.) The AIDS/HIV virus has a viral envelope derived from the T-helper white blood cells.
Bacteriophages - These are viruses that attack bacteria.These are some of the largest and most complex viruses.
Viruses are not living organisms. They cannot be “killed”. They can be broken apart using chemicals though.

15

Viruses possess either a double or single strand of DNA or RNA. (This is how viruses are classified.) Viruses contain very small amounts of DNA or RNA– most are 4 to 500 genes total.

Viral Genome

16

protects the DNA or RNA and helps with the attachment of the virus to a host cell. It is built from protein units called capsomeres.

Viral Protein Coat (Capsid)

17

This is a cloak derived from the previous host cell plasma membrane. (It is an example of mimicry. It looks like a normal cell, but it is actually like a Trojan horse. The danger is inside.) The AIDS/HIV virus has a viral envelope derived from the T-helper white blood cells.

Viral Envelope

18

These are viruses that attack bacteria.These are some of the largest and most complex viruses.

Bacteriophages

19

cannot reproduce outside their host cell, meaning that the parasite's reproduction is entirely reliant on intracellular resources.

Obligate Intracellular Parasite

20

They use reverse transcriptase, an enzyme, to turn RNA into DNA. (It. does transcription backwards. It turns “mRNA” into double stranded DNA, so that it can incorporate into the host DNA. AIDS/HIV and the common cold virus are both retroviruses.

Retroviruses

21

These are naked, infectious RNA molecules. They attack plants only. (“oid” means “like”… they are “like” viruses as they are infectious.)

Viroids

22

These are infectious proteins. Mad Cow – Kruetzfeldt-Jacob Disease is one example. The destroy brain cells thus driving the cow “mad” until it dies. The human version is KJD above.

Prions

23

Describe the basic structure of bacteria.

All prokaryotes are unicellular. Three basic shapes of prokaryotes exists: Cocci, Bacilli, Helical. Most prokaryotes will have a cell wall. (This is not the same as a plant’s cell wall.) This structure is primarily for protection of the underlying cell membrane. It also helps prevent the prokaryotes from bursting in an aquatic environment. (The cell is hypertonic to water.) The cell wall is mainly composed of proteins and sugars. These are called peptidoglycans. Scientists perform a Gram staining for easy, fast identification of most bacteria. Gram + (stain blue) (They possess a thick peptidoglycan layer.) Gram - (stain Red) (These posses a thin peptidoglycan layer between phospholipids layers.) Gram- are more dangerous to humans and are usually resistant to antibiotics. Some bacteria produce a Capsule that covers the cell wall. The capsule is a sticky substance for adherence to surfaces. This capsule material is what actually makes people sick; not the bacteria. Some prokaryotes have flagella, or cilia/fimbraie, or a helix body shape for movement. Some prokaryotes can move by “sliming”. (“Spitting” out a layer of mucous in front of them to slide on.)

24

Describe the basic shapes of prokaryotes.

Cocci (Means “round”.)
Bacilli (Means “rod”.)
Helical (Means “spiral”.)

25

refers to movement in response to a stimulus. (These terms could be used with any organism.)
(+) indicates movement “toward”; (-) indicates movement “away”.
The prefix tells the type of stimulus. (photo-light; geo-gravity; rheo-current; chemo-chemical)

Taxis

26

The eating of dead material. (These are decomposers.)

Saprobes

27

These harm other organisms.

Parasites

28

Feeding on Ammonia– NH3 make Ammonium – NH4.

Nitrogen Fixation

29

Feeding on Ammonium and producing Nitrite – NO2 as waste OR feeding on NO2 and producing Nitrate – NO3 as waste.

Nitrification

30

Using sunlight energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar.

Photosynthesis

31

Using Hydrogen Sulfide – H2S for energy instead of sunlight energy in making sugars.

Chemosynthesis

32

Feeding on another organism.

Heterotroph

33

These must intake oxygen to utilize their primary source of energy.

Obligate Aerobes

34

These organisms can be both. They can “function” with or without oxygen.

Facultative Anaerobes

35

These must be without oxygen. They die in the presence of oxygen.

Obligate Anaerobes

36

Describe the 3 types of bacteria that exist based on oxygen presence.

Obligate Aerobes - These must intake oxygen to utilize their primary source of energy. Facultative Anaerobes - These organisms can be both. They can “function” with or without oxygen.
Obligate Anaerobes - These must be without oxygen. They die in the presence of oxygen.

37

Produce Methane gas – CH4. These are mainly associated with ruminants.
(Animals with a rumen as part of the “stomach”.), Swamps, waste disposal, and trash dumps also produce methane.You have them too… living in your large intestine. These are the “fart’.

Methanogens

38

These are salt lovers. These bacteria are associated with places like the Dead Sea in Israel or Great Salt Lakes of Utah.

Halophiles

39

These are heat lovers. (These bacteria are found in hot springs or volcanoes.)

Thermophiles

40

Describe the various environments Archaea are found.

Methanogens - Produce Methane gas – CH4. These are mainly associated with ruminants.
(Animals with a rumen as part of the “stomach”.), Swamps, waste disposal, and trash dumps also produce methane.You have them too… living in your large intestine. These are the “fart’.
Halophiles - These are salt lovers. These bacteria are associated with places like the Dead Sea in Israel or Great Salt Lakes of Utah.
Thermophiles - These are heat lovers. (These bacteria are found in hot springs or volcanoes.)

41

cleaning up the environment using living organisms.

bioremediation

42

Are Protists prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Eukaryotic

43

Describe the means of nutrition for protists.

Heterotroph - Feeds on other organisms. Includes the Animal – like prtotists.
Also includes the Fungus – like protists.
Photoautotroph - Photosynthesizers. Includes the Plant – like protists. (These are the algae and phytoplankton.)
Mixotroph - These organisms can obtain energy either way listed above.

44

Feeds on other organisms. Includes the Animal – like prtotists.
Also includes the Fungus – like protists.

Heterotroph

45

Photosynthesizers. Includes the Plant – like protists. (These are the algae and phytoplankton.)

Photoautotroph

46

These organisms can obtain energy either way listed above.

Mixotroph

47

What is the Endosymbiotic Hypothesis?

This was proposed by Lynn Margulis in 1960.
It proposes that smaller prokaryotes entered into a symbiotic relationship with a larger prokaryote for protection. In return, the smaller prokaryote provided the ability to produce energy or motility for the larger organism. This relationship would have given the “new” organism an evolutionary advantage over the existing prokaryotes. This advantage led to the evolution of the Domain Eukarya and eventually over hundreds of millions of years to the Kingdoms Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
Supporting evidence – Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Flagella

48

Describe the various examples of protists.

Euglenozoa - These are Bi-flagellated organisms. Most of these organisms are Mixotrophic. (They can photosynthesize and also are heterotrophic.)They have a red eye spot that helps in detecting sunlight.
Alveolata - These organisms contain small air –filled chambers called alveoli.
Dinoflagellates - type of alveolata. Most are phytoplankton. Example - Red Tide (These are toxic to most mollusks, fish, and humans.)
Diatoms - Produce a yellow-brown, energy rich oil. Have a strong outer shell composed of silica. (They look like stained glass.) Important phytoplankton. (In food chains, they are major producers.)
Phaeophyta - Sea weed or kelp. Produce a brown, light absorbing pigment that contains Iodine
Animal – like Protists (A.K.A. protozoa.) - Most move using Pseudopodia “oozing.” These catch and eat other organisms, just like animals. (Ex. Amoebas - Most are free-living organisms and have no “real shape”.)
Fungus – like Protists (A.K.A. Mycetozoa – fungus animals) - These feed on decaying organisms as they are decomposers.
Plant – like Protists - These organisms perform photosynthesis, just like plants.

49

These are Bi-flagellated organisms. Most of these organisms are Mixotrophic. (They can photosynthesize and also are heterotrophic.)They have a red eye spot that helps in detecting sunlight.

Euglenozoa

50

These organisms contain small air –filled chambers called alveoli.

Alveolata

51

type of alveolata. Most are phytoplankton. Example - Red Tide (These are toxic to most mollusks, fish, and humans.)

Dinoflagellates

52

Produce a yellow-brown, energy rich oil. Have a strong outer shell composed of silica. (They look like stained glass.) Important phytoplankton. (In food chains, they are major producers.)

Diatoms

53

Sea weed or kelp. Produce a brown, light absorbing pigment that contains Iodine

Phaeophyta

54

Most move using Pseudopodia “oozing.” These catch and eat other organisms, just like animals. (Ex. Amoebas - Most are free-living organisms and have no “real shape”.)

Animal – like Protists (A.K.A. protozoa.)

55

These feed on decaying organisms as they are decomposers.

Fungus – like Protists (A.K.A. Mycetozoa – fungus animals)

56

These organisms perform photosynthesis, just like plants.

Plant-like protists

57

Viruses are prokaryotic, eukaryotic or neither?

neither

58

bacteria are prokaryotic, eukaryotic or neither?

prokaryotic

59

protists are prokaryotic, eukaryotic or neither?

eukaryotic

60

Do viruses display metabolism?

no

61

Do bacteria display metabolism?

yes

62

Do protists display metabolism?

yes

63

Can viruses reproduce sexually or asexually, or none, or both?

None

64

Can bacteria sexually or asexually, or none, or both?

Asexually

65

Can protists reproduce sexually or asexually, or none, or both?

Both

66

Modes of nutrition for viruses

Use materials taken in by the host cell

67

Modes of nutrition for bacteria

Saprobes
Parasites
Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrification
Photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
Heterotroph

68

Are viruses motile?

no

69

Are bacteria motile?

yes (flagella, taxis)

70

Are protists motile?

yes (flagella, cilia, pseudopodia)

71

Are bacteria unicellular?

yes

72

Are protists unicellular or multicellular?

They can be either

73

Do viruses have organelles, ribosomes, or cytoplasm?

No

74

Do bacteria have organelles, ribosomes, or cytoplasm?

they do not have organelles but they have ribosomes and cytoplasm

75

Do protists have organelles, ribosomes, and cytoplasm?

yes