Flashcards in Water & Electrolytes Deck (68):
what type of extracellular fluids are there?
Interstitial fluid Intravascular fluid
what are the two scenarios where Water loss exceeds intake?
– Heavy exercise
what are the two things that cause dehydration?
High environmental temperatures; Water loss exceeds intake
who are the three groups of people at risk of dehydration?
– Infants and elderly – Athletes
Lance Armstrong lost how much of his body weight during
Tour de France because of dehydration?
what are the seven functions of water?
• Structural component of all cells • Hydrolysis of digestion
• Transport of nutrients
• Medium for biological reactions • Temperature regulation
• Collection/removal of waste • Lubricant
what are kidneys central to? water
blood volume and pressure maintenance
what does the Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do?
– Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland – Water-conserving hormone
• Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water – Events trigger thirst
how much water do we lose in our urine?
how much water do we lose in Insensible perspiration?
how much water do we lose in Visible perspiration?
how much water do we lose in the Evaporation from lungs?
how much water do we lose in feces?
we lose a total of how much water?
who much water should adults consume per 1000 kcal?
how much water should children consume per 1000 kcal?
what are electrolytes?
Substance that disassociates in solution into electrically charged particles ions
what are the two positively charged electrolytes?
what are the two negatively charged electrolytes?
which electrolytes are in the extracellular fluid?
which electrolytes are in the intracellular fluid?
what are the six causes of Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalance?
– Excessive intake
– Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea – Heavy sweating
– Traumatic wounds – Some medications
what can a Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalance result in?
with Vomiting or diarrhea which electrolyte is lost?
with Tumor development which electrolyte is lost?
what are the three ways to Replace lost fluids and electrolytes?
– Plain cool water and regular foods – Special replacement fluids
what are the four Functions of Sodium?
Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction
Fluid & electrolyte balance
what are the two things sodium does in its function of Fluid & electrolyte balance?
• Principal cation of extracellular fluid • Primary regulator of volume
how does sodium travel in the blood?
what do the kidneys do in relation to sodium?
filter out and return what is needed
what is hyponatremia?
sodium deficiency disease
what are the seven symptoms of Hyponatremia?
Nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, spasms, coma
(brain edema), Excess water dilutes
what are the results of excess water diluting in Hyponatremia?
• Congestive heart failure • Overhydration >12 L/day • Cirrhosis
• Some cancers
what are the two instances when sodium deficiency occurs?
• Heavy sweating >3% loss of body weight
• Grazing animals where soil depleted by leaching – Mountains, Thailand
What are the two causes hypertension?
• 95% of hypertension cases is unknown – primary or essential hypertension
• 5% caused by kidney disease, sleep apnea, and salt sensitivity
what happens with hypertension?
Calcium excretion and bone loss
what is hypertension?
sodium toxicity disease?
what are the two diseases that occur with sodium toxicity?
what is sodium toxicity like?
acute (brief and severe)
whats the DRI for sodium?
whats the average intake of sodium?
what are the requirements of sodium?
1 tsp of salt equals how much sodium?
2000 mg of sodium
what are the five food sources of sodium?
Processed foods (75%)
Table salt (15%)
• Monosodium glutamate
(MSG) Asia • Soy sauce Asia • Milk
what are six things to not eat to restrict sodium intake?
• Monosodium glutamate • Baking powder & soda
• Brine (processed chicken) • Disodium phosphate
– Processed cheese
– Quick cooking cereals • Sodium alginate
– Chocolate milk, ice cream • Sodium benzoate
– Relish, salad dressings
what is potassium?
Principal intracellular cation
what are potassium's three roles?
– Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance – Helps maintain cell integrity
– Aids in nerve impulse transmission and muscle
what do diets rich in potassium do?
reduce risk of hypertension & perhaps, stroke
what are the four symptoms of potassium deficiency?
Increased risk of hypertension Irregular heartbeats
whats the UL of potassium in foods?
what are the three ways to get potassium toxicity?
Overconsumption of potassium salts or supplements; injection
what is Hyperkalemia and what are the four symptoms?
toxicity of potassium disease
• Irregular heart beat, heart attack*
• Nausea, vomiting diarrhea
what happens with the kidneys in potassium toxicity?
Kidneys accelerate excretion • Disease: must limit intake
whats the DRI of potassium?
what are the six food sources of potassium?
Fresh foods are highest
• Dried apricots
• Almonds & pistachios
whats the DASH diet?
Dietary Attempts to Stop Hypertension
what types of food should you increase with the DASH diet?
Increases grain products, fruits & vegetables, dairy foods, nuts, seeds & legumes!
what does the DASH diet lead to an increase of?
K, Ca & Mg in diet
what does the DASH diet do to your body?
Lowers blood pressure!
efficacy of the DASH diet increase when...?
salt is limited
what are chlorides four functions?
• Major anion of extracellular fluids
• Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
• Part of hydrochloric acid
• Assists transmission of nerve impulses
in chlorides function of Helping to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance it does what?
– Moves passively across membranes
• Follows sodium and potassium
do diet lack chloride?
what electrolyte is deficient in new baby formula?
how do you get a chloride toxicity?
whats the DRI of chloride?
what are the requirements of chloride?