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Flashcards in Water & Electrolytes Deck (68):
1

what type of extracellular fluids are there?

 Interstitial fluid  Intravascular fluid

2

what are the two scenarios where Water loss exceeds intake?

– Heavy exercise
– Diarrhea`

3

what are the two things that cause dehydration?

High environmental temperatures; Water loss exceeds intake

4

who are the three groups of people at risk of dehydration?

– Infants and elderly – Athletes

5

Lance Armstrong lost how much of his body weight during
Tour de France because of dehydration?

8%

6

what are the seven functions of water?

• Structural component of all cells • Hydrolysis of digestion
• Transport of nutrients
• Medium for biological reactions • Temperature regulation
• Collection/removal of waste • Lubricant

7

what are kidneys central to? water

blood volume and pressure maintenance

8

what does the Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do?

– Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland – Water-conserving hormone
• Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water – Events trigger thirst

9

how much water do we lose in our urine?

1000 ml

10

how much water do we lose in Insensible perspiration?

400 ml

11

how much water do we lose in Visible perspiration?

300 ml

12

how much water do we lose in the Evaporation from lungs?

300 ml

13

how much water do we lose in feces?

100 ml

14

we lose a total of how much water?

2100 ml

15

who much water should adults consume per 1000 kcal?

1000 ml

16

how much water should children consume per 1000 kcal?

1500 ml

17

what are electrolytes?

Substance that disassociates in solution into electrically charged particles ions

18

what are the two positively charged electrolytes?

sodium, potassium

19

what are the two negatively charged electrolytes?

chloride, phosphorus

20

which electrolytes are in the extracellular fluid?

sodium, chloride

21

which electrolytes are in the intracellular fluid?

potassium, phosphorus

22

what are the six causes of Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalance?

– Excessive intake
– Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea – Heavy sweating
– Burns
– Traumatic wounds – Some medications

23

what can a Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalance result in?

medical emergency

24

with Vomiting or diarrhea which electrolyte is lost?

sodium

25

with Tumor development which electrolyte is lost?

potassium

26

what are the three ways to Replace lost fluids and electrolytes?

– Plain cool water and regular foods – Special replacement fluids

27

what are the four Functions of Sodium?

Acid-base balance
Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction
Fluid & electrolyte balance

28

what are the two things sodium does in its function of Fluid & electrolyte balance?

• Principal cation of extracellular fluid • Primary regulator of volume

29

how does sodium travel in the blood?

freely

30

what do the kidneys do in relation to sodium?

filter out and return what is needed

31

what is hyponatremia?

sodium deficiency disease

32

what are the seven symptoms of Hyponatremia?

Nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, spasms, coma
(brain edema), Excess water dilutes

33

what are the results of excess water diluting in Hyponatremia?

• Congestive heart failure • Overhydration >12 L/day • Cirrhosis
• Some cancers

34

what are the two instances when sodium deficiency occurs?

• Heavy sweating >3% loss of body weight
• Grazing animals where soil depleted by leaching – Mountains, Thailand

35

What are the two causes hypertension?

• 95% of hypertension cases is unknown – primary or essential hypertension
• 5% caused by kidney disease, sleep apnea, and salt sensitivity

36

what happens with hypertension?

Calcium excretion and bone loss

37

what is hypertension?

sodium toxicity disease?

38

what are the two diseases that occur with sodium toxicity?

edema, hypertension

39

what is sodium toxicity like?

acute (brief and severe)

40

whats the DRI for sodium?

1500 mg

41

whats the average intake of sodium?

3400 mg

42

what are the requirements of sodium?

500 mg

43

1 tsp of salt equals how much sodium?

2000 mg of sodium

44

what are the five food sources of sodium?

Processed foods (75%)
Table salt (15%)
Other
• Monosodium glutamate
(MSG) Asia • Soy sauce Asia • Milk

45

what are six things to not eat to restrict sodium intake?

• Monosodium glutamate • Baking powder & soda
• Brine (processed chicken) • Disodium phosphate
– Processed cheese
– Quick cooking cereals • Sodium alginate
– Chocolate milk, ice cream • Sodium benzoate
– Relish, salad dressings

46

what is potassium?

Principal intracellular cation

47

what are potassium's three roles?

– Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance – Helps maintain cell integrity
– Aids in nerve impulse transmission and muscle
contraction

48

what do diets rich in potassium do?

reduce risk of hypertension & perhaps, stroke

49

what are the four symptoms of potassium deficiency?

Increased risk of hypertension Irregular heartbeats
Muscle weakness
Glucose intolerance

50

whats the UL of potassium in foods?

None

51

what are the three ways to get potassium toxicity?

Overconsumption of potassium salts or supplements; injection

52

what is Hyperkalemia and what are the four symptoms?

toxicity of potassium disease
• Irregular heart beat, heart attack*
• Nausea, vomiting diarrhea

53

what happens with the kidneys in potassium toxicity?

Kidneys accelerate excretion • Disease: must limit intake

54

whats the DRI of potassium?

4700 mg

55

what are the six food sources of potassium?

Fresh foods are highest
• Parsley
• Dried apricots
• Chocolate
• Almonds & pistachios
• Bananas
• Avocados

56

whats the DASH diet?

Dietary Attempts to Stop Hypertension

57

what types of food should you increase with the DASH diet?

Increases grain products, fruits & vegetables, dairy foods, nuts, seeds & legumes!

58

what does the DASH diet lead to an increase of?

K, Ca & Mg in diet

59

what does the DASH diet do to your body?

Lowers blood pressure!

60

efficacy of the DASH diet increase when...?

salt is limited

61

what are chlorides four functions?

• Major anion of extracellular fluids
• Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
• Part of hydrochloric acid
• Assists transmission of nerve impulses

62

in chlorides function of Helping to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance it does what?

– Moves passively across membranes
• Follows sodium and potassium

63

do diet lack chloride?

rarely

64

what electrolyte is deficient in new baby formula?

chloride

65

how do you get a chloride toxicity?

water deficiency

66

whats the DRI of chloride?

2300 mg

67

what are the requirements of chloride?

500 mg

68

which electrolyte is abundant in processed foods?

Abundant in processed foods