WBC Cancer Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in WBC Cancer Genetics Deck (22):
1

Burkitt

t 8,14
c-myc, heavy Ig
c-myc oncogene promotes cell growth (high mitotic index) - intermediate B cell lymphoma => starry sky b/c growing so fast die then cleaned up by tingible body macro

2

Follicular lymphoma

t 14. 18
Ig H, Bcl 2
Bcl 2 inhibits apoptosis - stabilizes mito membrane so no cyto c leaks out
Normally you WANT apoptosis in the follicle to kill self reactive B cells

3

How do you tell the difference bet follicle hyperplasia in response to infection vs follicular lymphoma?

Hyperplasia - have tingible body macro b/c cells are apoptosing like they should, poly clonal explansion, no Bcl 2 expression
Neoplasma: no TBM, monoclonal expansion with kappa:lambda ratio 20:1 (should be 3:1), disrupt normal architecture

4

Mantle cell lymphoma

t 11, 14
Cyclin D1, Ig H
Cyclin D promotes G1 -> S
"Region immediately adjacent to the follicle"

5

Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma

HTLV - human T lymphocyte virus

6

B-ALL for kids vs adults

Blasts will be + for tdt, CD 10, 19 and 20
Kids: t 12,21 = good prognosis
Adults: t9,22 = Philadelphia, bad prognosis (cause really thinking CML)

7

APL

t 15, 17
Move RAR from its spot on 17 - blasts don't get maturation signal
Type of AML: +MPO, Auer rods
Increased risk DIC

8

Which AML infiltrates the gums

Acute MONOCYTIC leukemia
No MPO here

9

Which leukemia is associated with Downs before vs after 5yo

AML = before 5
ALL - after 5

10

CML

t 9, 22 = Philadelphia
Tyrosine kinase fusion product
Use imatinib = TK I

11

Difference between CML and leukemoid rxn (aka infection)

CML
- Negative LAP stain (normal neutrophils have ↑LAP activity)
- Increased basophils specifically - stain dark purple because of all basophilic granules
- t 9.22 mutation

12

Myelodysplastic syndromes: PV, ET, myelofibrosis

JAK 2 mutation

13

What CD receptor tells you T cell lymphoma? Name the 2 kinds

CD 4 (+tdt)
ATLL (HTLV) - lytic bone lesions -> hyperCa
Mycosis fungoides = cerebriform nuclei when biopsy skin lesions (weird way for lymphoma to present aka not at LN)
Sezary syndrome if MF progresses to T cell leukemia

14

What is tdt

DNA pol @ nucleus
Specific for lymphocytes (T+B)

15

Which tumors can turn into diffuse large B cell lymphoma?

Follicular
CLL

16

What type of cell is CLL - histo

B cell leukemia (no chronic T cell leukemia)
CLL - crushed little lymphocytes
Looks like massive smashed potatos

17

Which leukemia is presenting with a dry tap + splenomegaly? What is the cause of the splenomeg? Histo

HAIR CELL LEUKEMIA
Mature B cell tumor - hairy projections
TRAP +
Splenomeg b/c accum cells in RED PULP

18

Which tumor is presenting as a mediastinal mass?

T acute LL

19

RF for AML

Prior alkylating chemo - messing with DNA causes immature cancer
Myeloprolif disorders - replication of mature cells causes backwards step

20

What is a blast crisis?

CML reverts into an AML or ALL
Accelerated phase
B/c the problem was always with stem cell

21

Treat CML + hairy cell leukemia

CML: imatinib
Hairy cell: cladribine (adenosine deamin I), pentostatin

22

M spike of IgG or IgA - with symptoms
W/o symptoms
M spike of IgM

MM
MGUS
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia