Week 1 part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 1 part 3 Deck (74):
1

In pregancy how long is fetus carried for?

Up to 40 weeks

2

When does 1st trimester complete at?

12 weeks

3

When does 2nd trimester complete at?

28 weeks

4

When does 3rd trimester complete at?

40 weeks

5

What is the pregancy marker?

bhCG

6

During what days does blastocyst implant?

8 to 9 day

7

Is the embryo abnormal or normal in miscarriage and molar pregnancy?

Misscarriage - normal
Molar pregnancy - abnormal

8

Positive pregnancy urine pregnancy test, varied gestation, bleeding and cramping?

Miscarriage

9

What scan is gold stanrard for miscarriage?

TV ultrasound

10

If speculum exam shows os (opening of cervix to uterus) closed what is likely?

Threatened miscarriage

11

If speculum exam shows os (opening of cervix to uterus) with products sited at open os?

Inevitable miscarriage

12

If speculum exam shows os (opening of cervix to uterus) oipen with products in vagina what has happened?

cOMPLETE MIscarriage

13

Incomplete miscarriage?

Part of pregnanct lost already

14

Early fetal demise?

Pregnancy in situ, no heartbeat: MSD greater than 25mm

15

In miscarriage - why is misoprostil given?

To expel pregancy

16

Pain, bleeding, dizziness, collapse, shoulder tip pain, shoprt of breath? Also pallor, signs of peritonism guarding and tenderness?

Ectopic pregnancy

17

USS showing empty uterus, +/i mass in adenexa, free fluid in pouch of douglas?

Ectopic pregnancy

18

What is noted in comparitive assessment of serum bHCG in ectopic pregnancy?

48 hours apart it doubles

19

Overgrowth of placental tissue with chorionic villi swollen with fluid giving picture of grape like clusters?

Molar pregnancy

20

What does a complete mole have a 2.5% increase risk of?

Choriocarcinoma

21

What type of molar pregnancy is this - egg without DNA, 1 or 2 sperms fertilise, result in diploidy (paternal only)?

Complete mole

22

What type of molar pregnancy is this - haploid egg, 1 sperm or 2 sperms fertilising egg, result in triploidy, may have fetus?

Partial mole

23

Hyperemesis, varied bleeding and passage of grap like tissue, occassional SOB?

Molar pregnancy

24

What is seen on USS in molar pregnancy?

Snow storm appearance +/- fetius

25

What type of bleeding could occur 10 days post ovulation?

Implantation bleeding - bleeding is liught brownish and limited

26

Pooling of blood between endometriun and embryo due to seperation?

Chorionic haematoma

27

Name a cervical cause of bleeding in early pregnancy?

Cervical ectropion - cervix has columnar, vaginal has squamous. Cervix undergoes squamous metaplasia

28

Strawberry vagina?

Trichomoniasis

29

What chromosome has the sex determining region and causes development of testis from bipotential gonad?

Y chromosome

30

What are the two primitive genital tracts?

Wolffian and Mullerian ducts

31

What two factors cause the development of the male internal genital tract?

Testosterone and Mullerian inhibiting factor

32

In males what happens to the Wolffian ducts?

Repro tract

33

In females what happens toe the wOLFFIAN ducts?

Degenerate

34

In males what happens to mullerian ducts?

Degenerate

35

In females what happens to mullerian ducts?

Repro tract

36

In differentiation of external genitalia what does dihydrotestosterone stimulate?

Penis

37

Name an x-linked recessive disorder with male karyotype 46XY, testis develop but do not descend?

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (testicular feminisation)

38

In androgen insensitivity syndrome there is congential insensitivity to androgens. Androgen induction of what duct does not occur?

Wolffian duct. Mullerian inhibition occurs so born with external female enitals but no ovaries or uterus, short vagina

39

Why is it important testis descend?

Lower temp outside body to faciliate - spermatogenesis dartos muscle contracts in scrotal sac to lower/raise testis temp

40

What is cryptochidism?

Undescended testis

41

What should be performed in cryptochidism below age 14 to miniise risk of testciular cancer?

Orchidopexy

42

Where does spermatogeneisis occur?

Seminiferous tbules

43

Where does production of testosterone occur?

Leydig cells

44

In a spermatozoon - what contains enzumes for penetrating zona pelucida and thus ovum?

Acrosome

45

What cells form a blood-testes barrier?

Sertoli cells

46

What cells secrete seminiferous tubule fluid, androgen binding globulin and inhibin and activin hormones?

Sertoli cells

47

In hormonal control of spermatogenesis: what does LH cause leydig cells to produce?

Testosterone

48

In hormonal control of spermatogenesis: What acts on sertoli cell in seminiferous tubule to secrete androgen binding globulin and inhibin (decreases FSH)?

FSH

49

wHAT RELEASE DOES gRRH have?

Pulsatile - everye 2-3 hours

50

What glycoprotein acts on Leydig cells and regulates testosterone secretion?

LH

51

What glycoprotein acts on Sertoli cells to enhance spermatogenesis and regulates by negative feedback from inhibin?

FSH

52

Is production of LH and FSH cyclical in females?

Yes

53

What secretes inhibin and activin?

Sertoli cells - feedback on FSH (inhibin inhibits and activin stimulates)

54

Exit route from testes to urethra, concentrate & store sperm, site for sperm maturation

Epididymis and vas deferens

55

Produce semen into ejaculatory duct, supply fructose, secrete prostaglandins (stimulates motility), secrete fibrinogen (clot precursor)

seminal vesicles

56

Produces alkaline fluid (neutralizes vaginal acidity), produces clotting enzymes to clot semen within female

prostate gland

57

Secrete mucus to act as lubricant

bulbourethral glands

58

Erdction is under what control?

Parasympathetic - point

59

Ejaculation is under what control?

Sympathetic - shoot

60

Name an obstructive cause of male infertility?

Cystic fibrosis

61

What is adult normal testicular volume?

12- 25 mls

62

What male imnfertility is suggested if low testicular volume, reduced seconadry sexula characteristics and vas deferens present - also high LH, FSH and low testosterone?

Non-obstructive

63

indication for surgical sperm aspiration?

Azoospermia

64

When does menstrual phase of endometrium occur?

Days 1 to 3

65

In the proliferative phase of endometrium - what hormone causes growt?

Oestrogen

66

In the secretory phase of endometrium what causes secretion?

Progesterone

67

What investigation is indicated in abnormal uterine bleeding, endometrial ablation, investigation of infertility etc?

Endometrial sampling

68

What is an indication in endometrium for a biopsy?

Thickness greater than 4mm in post menopausal woman
greater than 16mm in premenopausal women

69

What is chronic plasmacytic endometritis associated with?

PID (gonorrhjoea, chlamydia and enteric organisms

70

In a misscariage what products of conception can be seen in histology?

Foetal red blood cells
Chorionic villi

71

caused by a single (incidence is about 90%) or two (incidence is about 10%) sperm combining with an egg which has lost its DNA (the sperm then reduplicates forming a "complete" 46 chromosome set. Only paternal DNA is present in a complete mole.

Complete mole

72

occurs when egg is fertilized by two sperm or by one sperm which reduplicates itself yielding the genotypes of 69,XXY (triploid). Partial moles have both maternal and paternal DNA

Partial mole

73

What do complete hydatidiform moles have a higher risk of developing into ?

choriocarcinoma

74

What is growth of leiomyoma dependent on?

Oestrogen