Week 4 part 3 Flashcards Preview

JL Reproduction and Sexual Health > Week 4 part 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4 part 3 Deck (54):
1

When does bleeding in early pregnancy occur?

less than 24 weeks

2

Bleeding from the genital tract after 24 weeks gestation?

Antepartum haemorrhage

3

Are preeclampsia and hypertension risk factors for placental abruption?

Yes

4

Name a cause of couvelaire uterus?

Placental abruption

5

Uterine tenderness/wooden hard?

Placental abruption

6

Sudden-onset abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and uterine tenderness. Also abnormally freuqent contractions and uterine hypertonus?

Abruption

7

Placenta is partially or totally implanted in lower uterine segment?

Placenta previa

8

Painless, 'causeless' recurrent 3rd trimester bleeding? Uterus is soft and non tender

Placenta previa

9

How do you diagnose placenta oprevuia?

Ultrasound (20 week scan) - do not perform vaginal exam until you exclude it

10

Placenta invades myometrium?

Placenta accreta - percreta (placenta has reached serosa). Associated with sever ebleeding, PPH and may end up with hysterectomy

11

With placenta praevia - if ther has been prior bleeding in pregnancy or suspected/confirmed placenta accreta how is baby delivered?

Caesarea section at 37 weeks

12

With placenta preavia are steroids given?

Yes - promote fetal lung surfactant production (e.g. betamethasone)

13

Greater than 500ml blood loss post partum?

PPH

14

4 t'S OF pph?

Tone - 70%
Trauma - 20%
Tissue -10%
Thrombin - <1%

15

What is the initial management of PPH?

1. Uterine massage
2. 5 units IV syntocinon stat
3. 40 units syntocinon in 500ml Hartmanns

16

Management of persistent PPH

Catheter
500microg ergometrine IV

17

Deepest layer of pelvic floor?

Pelvic diaphragm

18

What two muscle groups make up pelvic diapgrahm?

Levator ani
+
Coccygeus

19

Forms most of pelvic diaphragm?

Levator ani

20

What are three muscles making up levator ani/

1. Iliococcygeus
2. Pubococcygeus
3. Puborectalis

21

Name 4 pelvic ligaments?

1. Uterosacral
2. Transverse cervical
3. Lateral ligament of bladder
4. Lateral rectal ligaments

22

What lies below fascia covering inferior aspect of pelvic diaphragm, and lies above perineal membrane?

Deep perineal pouch - conatains part of urethra, bulbourethral glands, NVB for penis/clitoris, extensions of ischioanal fat pads and muscles

23

What in males, contains bulb - corpus spongiosim, crura - corpus cavernosum. associated muscles - bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus?

Superficial perineal pouch - male

24

What in females, contains female erectile tissue and associated muscles: clitoris and crura - corpus cavernosum, bulbs of vestibule - paired, associated muscles - bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus

superficial perineal pouch - female

25

Lump in vaginal wall?

Prolapse - vaginal

26

Dragging sensation, feeling of lump, urinary incontinence?

Uterine prolapse

27

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M1

Brain (cortex, hippocampus); salivary glands
Cognitive functioning and memory; saliva secretion

28

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M2

Heart, brain, smooth muscle
Regulation of heart rate and heart rate flexibility; behavioural flexibility

29

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M3

Smooth muscle, glands, eye
Smooth muscle contraction; gland secretion; iris contraction

30

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M4

Brain (forebrain, striatum)
Modulation of several important dopamine-dependent behaviours

31

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M5

Brain (substantia nigra); eye
Regulation of striatal dopamine release

32

Stress urinary incontinence?

leakage of urine during raised intra-abdominal pressure

33

leakage associated with urgency, usually with detrusor activity

Overactive bladder

34

What test is useful to differentiate between stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in patients whom surgery considered?

Urodynamics

35

a method by which the pressure/volume relationship of the bladder is measured during filling, provocation and during voiding

Cystometry

36

Drug for stress urinary incontinence

Duloxetine

37

Drug for overactive bladder?

Oxybutynin

38

1st degree uterine descent?

In vagina

39

2ND degree uterine descent?

In interiotus

40

3rd degree uterine descent?

Procidentia (entiryl outside vagina)

41

What has prolapsed if it is an enterocele prolapse?

Pouvh of douglas cobtaining small bowel

42

What type of prlapse: stress urinary incontinence, urinary retention, recurrent UTI?

Cystourethrocele

43

What typeof prolapse? Backache, ulceration if procidentia/everted?

Uterine/vault prolapse

44

What type of prolapse - constipation, dyschezia?

Rectal

45

When is the nadir reached in pregnancy for BP/

22-24 weeks

46

What are the two stages in pathogenesis of preeclampsia?

1. aBNORMAL placental perfusion
2. Maternal syndrome

47

What can be used to predict pre-eclampsia?

Maternal Uterine Artery Doppler 20-24 weeks

48

Treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: METHYLdopa contraindication?

Depression

49

Treatment of hypertension in pregnancy: labetalol contraindication?

Asthma

50

Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure occuring with features of pre-eclampsia

Eclampsia - most common post partum 44%, more common in teenagers

51

What hypertensives are given for eclampsia?

IV Labetalol
IV hydralazine

52

How are seizures treated in eclampsia?

Magnesium sulphate

53

What is main cause of death in eclampsia?

Pulmomary oedema

54

whats is given in low dose to high risk woemn for preeclampsia?

Aspirin- commence before12 weeks