Week 4 part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 4 part 3 Deck (54)
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1

When does bleeding in early pregnancy occur?

less than 24 weeks

2

Bleeding from the genital tract after 24 weeks gestation?

Antepartum haemorrhage

3

Are preeclampsia and hypertension risk factors for placental abruption?

Yes

4

Name a cause of couvelaire uterus?

Placental abruption

5

Uterine tenderness/wooden hard?

Placental abruption

6

Sudden-onset abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and uterine tenderness. Also abnormally freuqent contractions and uterine hypertonus?

Abruption

7

Placenta is partially or totally implanted in lower uterine segment?

Placenta previa

8

Painless, 'causeless' recurrent 3rd trimester bleeding? Uterus is soft and non tender

Placenta previa

9

How do you diagnose placenta oprevuia?

Ultrasound (20 week scan) - do not perform vaginal exam until you exclude it

10

Placenta invades myometrium?

Placenta accreta - percreta (placenta has reached serosa). Associated with sever ebleeding, PPH and may end up with hysterectomy

11

With placenta praevia - if ther has been prior bleeding in pregnancy or suspected/confirmed placenta accreta how is baby delivered?

Caesarea section at 37 weeks

12

With placenta preavia are steroids given?

Yes - promote fetal lung surfactant production (e.g. betamethasone)

13

Greater than 500ml blood loss post partum?

PPH

14

4 t'S OF pph?

Tone - 70%
Trauma - 20%
Tissue -10%
Thrombin - <1%

15

What is the initial management of PPH?

1. Uterine massage
2. 5 units IV syntocinon stat
3. 40 units syntocinon in 500ml Hartmanns

16

Management of persistent PPH

Catheter
500microg ergometrine IV

17

Deepest layer of pelvic floor?

Pelvic diaphragm

18

What two muscle groups make up pelvic diapgrahm?

Levator ani
+
Coccygeus

19

Forms most of pelvic diaphragm?

Levator ani

20

What are three muscles making up levator ani/

1. Iliococcygeus
2. Pubococcygeus
3. Puborectalis

21

Name 4 pelvic ligaments?

1. Uterosacral
2. Transverse cervical
3. Lateral ligament of bladder
4. Lateral rectal ligaments

22

What lies below fascia covering inferior aspect of pelvic diaphragm, and lies above perineal membrane?

Deep perineal pouch - conatains part of urethra, bulbourethral glands, NVB for penis/clitoris, extensions of ischioanal fat pads and muscles

23

What in males, contains bulb - corpus spongiosim, crura - corpus cavernosum. associated muscles - bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus?

Superficial perineal pouch - male

24

What in females, contains female erectile tissue and associated muscles: clitoris and crura - corpus cavernosum, bulbs of vestibule - paired, associated muscles - bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus

superficial perineal pouch - female

25

Lump in vaginal wall?

Prolapse - vaginal

26

Dragging sensation, feeling of lump, urinary incontinence?

Uterine prolapse

27

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M1

Brain (cortex, hippocampus); salivary glands
Cognitive functioning and memory; saliva secretion

28

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M2

Heart, brain, smooth muscle
Regulation of heart rate and heart rate flexibility; behavioural flexibility

29

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M3

Smooth muscle, glands, eye
Smooth muscle contraction; gland secretion; iris contraction

30

Predominant locations and role of muscarinic receptor subtypes: M4

Brain (forebrain, striatum)
Modulation of several important dopamine-dependent behaviours