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Flashcards in Week 3 part 2 Deck (100)
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1

What kind of nerves are involved in pelvic floor muscle contraction e.g. during sneezing?

Somatic motor

2

Uterine cramping/menstruation and contraction involve what types of nerve?

Sympathetic/parasympathetic

3

What carries pain from pelvic part of vagina and from perineum?

Pelvic vagina - visceral afferents
Perineal vagina - somatic sensory

4

Pain runs alongside what fibres in inferior aspect of pelvic organs (not touching perititneum) and in what fibres when touching the peritoneum?

Inferior - parasympathetic fibres
Superior - sympathetic fibres

5

Name two structures crossing from pelvis to perineum?

Urethra
Vagina

6

What fibres deal with pain sensation above levator ani (pelvis)

Patasympathetic

7

What fibres deal with pain sensation below levator ani (perineum)?

Pudendal nerve
S2-4

8

Visceral afferents for pain travel back to T11-L2 from pelvic organs which touch the peritoneum. Give three of these structures? (sympathetic)

Uterine tubes
uTERUS
Ovaries

9

In the cervix and superior vagina where do pain sensation visceral afferents travel back to?

S2-S4

10

In relation to spinal and epidural anaesthetic: at what level does s[inal cord become cauda equina?

L2 vertebra

11

When does subarachnoid space end?

Level of S2

12

In relation to spinal and epidural anaesthetic: what region is anaesthetic injected into?

L3-L4 region (L4 spinous process at most superior point on iliac crest)

13

Where does needle pass through for spinal anaesthetic?

supraspinous ligament
interspinous ligament
ligamentum flavum
epidural space (fat and veins)
dura mater
arachnoid mater
finally reaches subarachnoid space (contains CSF)

14

What does needle pass through for epidural?

supraspinous ligament
interspinous ligament
ligamentum flavum
epidural space (fat and veins)

15

What do all spinal nerves and their named nerves contain?

Sympathetic fibres

16

How do you know if spinal anaesthetic is working?

Blockade of sympahtetic tone to all arterioles leading to vasodilation. Skin of lower limbs looks flushed, warm and reduced sweating
HYPOTENSION

17

The pudendal nerve exits pelvis via ... It passes posterior to ... ligament. It reenters via ... It travels in pudendal canal (passageway within ... with ... artery and vein), also nerve to obturator internus

Greater sciatic foramen
Sacrospinous ligament
Lesses sciatic foramen
Obturator fascia
Internal pudendal artery

18

What landmark is used for administration of pudendal nerve block?

Ischial spines

19

During labour damage to what nerve and muscle could occur?

Pudendal nerve stretched
Excternal anal spincter muscle torn when weakened
Faecal incontinence

20

In an episiotomy - where is the mediolateral incision made into?

Ischioanal fossa (fat filled)

21

What triggers male/female differentiation?

Germ cells

22

What is the origin of male duct system?

Mesonephric

23

What is origin of female duct system?

Paramesonephric

24

What controls descent of the testis?

Gubernaculum

25

What do the paramesonephric ducts fuse to create?

Broad ligament of the uterus

26

Name three methods of doing a DNA or chromosome test on baby in utero?

Placenta - chorionic villus biopsy (good tissue)
Skin/urine cells - amniocentesis (poor tiossue)
Blood - fetal blood sampling (good tissue)

27

When can chorionic villus biopsy and amniocentesis be performed?

CVS - 12 weeks
Amniocentesis - 15 weeks

28

When can fetal blood samplimg be done?

18+ weeks

29

fetal blood sampling miscarriage risk?

2%

30

What fetal DNA method of testing has a risk of confined placental mosaicism?

CVS