What is Cultural Variation Theory?
States that culture differs on three dimensions:
- Complexity (e.g. high tech, GNP per capita)
- Tightness (e.g. in tight cultures, norms are imposed tightly)
- Collectivism (vs. emphasising the significance of groups)
What are Hofstede’s 5 dimensions of culture?
- Power distance
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Long-term orientation
What is power distance? (Hofstede’s dimensions of culture
The extent to which less powerful members of organisations (e.g. family) accepts and expect that power is distributed unequally.
Low power distance (e.g. Denmark)- subordinates expect to be consulted
High power distance (e.g. Iraq) - subordinates expect to be told what to do
What is individualism? (Hofstede’s dimensions of culture)
High individualism (e.g., Australia)
- “I” consciousness
- Task prevails over relationship
- Others classified as individuals
Low individualism (Collectivism) (e.g. China)
- “We” consciousness
- Relationship prevails over task
- Others classified as in-group or out-group
How do masculinity and femininity differ in different countries? (Hofstede’s dimensions of culture)
In countries, like Japan, maximum emotional and social role differentiation between genders. e.g. girls cry, boys don’t. For men, work prevails over family.
In countries like Sweden, minimum emotional and social role differentiation between the genders. e.g. both boys and girls cry but neither should fight. For women, there is a balance between work and family.
What is uncertainty avoidance? (Hofstede’s dimensions of culture)
A society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.
Low uncertainty avoidance (e.g. Singapore) - comfortable with ambiguity
High uncertainty avoidance (e.g. Germany) - need for clarity and structure - strict laws and rules, safety and security measures. There can only be one truth and we have it
What is short-term vs. long-term orientation? (Hofstede’s dimensions of culture)
The connect of the past with the current and future actions/challenges.
- most important events in life occurred in the past/present
- most important events in life will occur in the future
What are some criticisms of Hofstede’s dimensions of culture? (4)
- Theory assumes that all dimensions of national culture have been discovered
- Because the data was obtained ages ago, it might not mirror today’s country characteristics
- Survey questions were designed to measures and compare cultural differences at a macro-level, not micro level. So the instrument can’t be used with individual consumers.
- Researchers have questioned the validity and reliability of the results
What are culture clusters and in what project do they appear?
A grouping of countries that share similar cultural characteristics.
Appear in the GLOBE project
What are ethnic subcultures?
A self-perpetuating group of consumers who are held together by common cultural or genetic ties.
What is acculturation?
Adapting to one country’s cultural environment by a person from another country.
During the acculturation process, immigrants experience either:
- Assimilation (eg. adopt products/values that are identified with the mainstream culture)
- Resistance (e.g. resentment of adoption)
The marketing perspective of lifestyle recognises that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of what 3 things?
(1) They things the like to do
(2) How they like to spend their leisure time
(3) How they spend their disposable income
To create product-lifestyle linkages, consider: (3)
(1) Co-branding (e.g. strategic partnership with different brands)
(2) Product complementarity: occurs when the symbolic meanings of different products are related to each other
(3) Consumption constellations: clusters of complementary products, specific brands and/or consumption activities used by consumers
Psychographic segmentation typologies were developed by companies and ad agencies to identify groups of consumers with common lifestyles. What are 3 key approaches to classifying consumers in terms of lifestyle?
- Roy Morgan Values Segments
- Global MOSIAC
The Values and Lifestyles System (VALS) involves what 3 self-orientations? (HINT: PSA - psychographic segmentation typologies)
Principle orientation: guided by a belief system.
Status orientation: guided by opinions of peers.
Action orientation: desire to impact the world around them.
What are the 8 VALS groups? (HINT: Ingrid Thinks Assholes Eat Bacon Sandwiches More on Sundays - psychographic segmentation typologies)
Innovators Thinkers Achievers Experiencers Believers Strivers Makers Survivors
What are the 4 human social dimensions of the Roy Morgan Values Segments? (Psychographic segmentation typologies)
What are the two marketplace reality dimensions of the Roy Morgan Values Segments? (Psychographic segmentation typologies)
Quality and price expectations
What is the Global MOSIAC?(Psychographic segmentation typologies)
Classification identifies 10 distinct neighbourhood types, each with a set of distinctive demographic and lifestyle characteristics that can be found in every country covered by the classification.
A cultural system has 3 functional areas:
- Social structure
From values flow norms: rules dictating what is right or
wrong, acceptable or not. Marketers may violate norms to break through clutter.
What are the 2 types of norms?
Enacted norms – norms explicitly decided on. E.g., green lights mean ‘go’.
Crescive norms – norms embedded in a culture e.g.:
- Custom – a norm handed down from the past that controls basic behaviours (e.g., what time to eat dinner).
- More (‘mor-ay’) – a custom with a strong moral overtone (e.g., what kind of food to eat).
- Conventions – norms regarding the conduct of everyday life (e.g., how to eat, including utensils to use and appropriate etiquette).
A myth is a story containing symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions and ideals of a culture. What are the functions and structures of a myth.
What is profane consumption? (as opposed to sacred consumption)
Involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary, everyday objects and events that do not share the ‘specialness’ of sacred ones.
What is desacralisation?
Some things formerly regarded as sacred have become profane
What is sacralisation?
Some things formerly regarded as profane become sacred
Individuals and organisations responsible for creating and marketing a cultural product is a what?
Culture Production System (CPS)
What is reality engineering?
Occurs as marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and convert them for use as promo vehicles
What is cultivation hypothesis?
The media’s ability to distort consumers’ perceptions of reality
What is diffusion of innovations?
When a new product, service or idea spreads through a population (e.g. early adopters, late adopters, etc)
What is an etic persepctive? (Standardised strategy - transferring product meanings to other cultures)
Focuses on commonalities across cultures
What is an emic persepctive? (Localised strategy - transferring product meanings to other cultures)
Stresses variations across cultures
What is the Globalised Consumption Ethic?
People worldwide begin to share the ideal of a material lifestyle and value brands that symbolise prosperity.
Foreign influences may be absorbed and integrated with local meaning.
What are transitional economies?
Refers to a country that is struggling with the difficult adaptation from a controlled, centralised economy to a free-market system.